A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 1,  No. 4, 2014

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2014, 1(4): .
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Coordinated Adaptive Control for Coordinated Path-following Surface Vessels with a Time-invariant Orbital Velocity
Yangyang Chen, Ping Wei
2014, 1(4): 337-346.
Abstract(1207) HTML (27) PDF(19)
This article considers the problem of directing a family of fully actuated surface vessels to cooperatively follow a set of convex and closed orbits with a time-invariant reference orbital velocity and maintain attitude synchronization. A consensusbased adaptive control law under a bidirectional communication topology is proposed to estimate the reference orbital velocity so that the restriction that every vessel in the family must have access to the reference in the previous literature can be removed. The assumption of nonzero total linear speed of each vessel is removed by the use of potential function. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Adaptive Iterative Learning Control Based on Unfalsified Strategy for Chylla-Haase Reactor
Jing Wang, Yue Wang, Liulin Cao, Qibing Jin
2014, 1(4): 347-360.
Abstract(1100) HTML (21) PDF(20)
An adaptive iterative learning control based on unfalsified strategy is proposed to solve high precision temperature tracking of the Chylla-Haase reactor, in which iterative learning is the main control method and the unfalsified strategy is adapted to adjust the learning rate adaptively. It is encouraged that the unfalsified control strategy is extended from time domain to iterative domain, and the basic definition and mathematics description of unfalsified control in iterative domain are given. The proposed algorithm is a kind of data-driven method, which does not need an accurate system model. Process data are used to construct fictitious reference signal and switch function in order to handle different process conditions. In addition, the plant data are also used to build the iterative learning control law. Here the learning rate in a different error level is adjusted to ensure the convergent speed and stability, rather than keeping constant in traditional iterative learning control. Furthermore, two important problems in iterative learning control, i.e., the initial control law and convergence analysis, are discussed in detail. The initial input of first iteration is arranged according to a mechanism model, which can assure a good produce quality in the first iteration and a fast convergence speed of tracking error. The convergence condition is given which is obviously relaxed compared with the tradition iterative learning control. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm is effective for the Chylla-Haase problem with good performance in both convergent speed and stability.
Parameters Tuning of Model Free Adaptive Control Based on Minimum Entropy
Chao Ji, Jing Wang, Liulin Cao, Qibing Jin
2014, 1(4): 361-371.
Abstract(1170) HTML (19) PDF(14)
Dynamic linearization based model free adaptive control (MFAC) algorithm has been widely used in practical systems, in which some parameters should be tuned before it is successfully applied to process industries. Considering the random noise existing in real processes, a parameter tuning method based on minimum entropy optimization is proposed, and the feature of entropy is used to accurately describe the system uncertainty. For cases of Gaussian stochastic noise and non-Gaussian stochastic noise, an entropy recursive optimization algorithm is derived based on approximate model or identified model. The extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the minimum entropy optimization for the partial form dynamic linearization based MFAC. The parameters tuned by the minimum entropy optimization index shows stronger stability and more robustness than these tuned by other traditional index, such as integral of the squared error (ISE) or integral of timeweighted absolute error (ITAE), when the system stochastic noise exists.
Near Optimal Output Feedback Control of Nonlinear Discrete-time Systems Based on Reinforcement Neural Network Learning
Qiming Zhao, Hao Xu, Sarangapani Jagannathan
2014, 1(4): 372-384.
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In this paper, the output feedback based finitehorizon near optimal regulation of nonlinear affine discretetime systems with unknown system dynamics is considered by using neural networks (NNs) to approximate Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation solution. First, a NN-based Luenberger observer is proposed to reconstruct both the system states and the control coefficient matrix. Next, reinforcement learning methodology with actor-critic structure is utilized to approximate the time-varying solution, referred to as the value function, of the HJB equation by using a NN. To properly satisfy the terminal constraint, a new error term is defined and incorporated in the NN update law so that the terminal constraint error is also minimized over time. The NN with constant weights and timedependent activation function is employed to approximate the time-varying value function which is subsequently utilized to generate the finite-horizon near optimal control policy due to NN reconstruction errors. The proposed scheme functions in a forward-in-time manner without offline training phase. Lyapunov analysis is used to investigate the stability of the overall closedloop system. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.
An Adaptive Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Unmanned Surface Vehicle in Complicated Marine Environments
Rubo Zhang, Pingpeng Tang, Yumin Su, Xueyao Li, Ge Yang, Changting Shi
2014, 1(4): 385-396.
Abstract(1196) HTML (1) PDF(40)
Unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) are important autonomous marine robots that have been studied and gradually applied into practice. However, the autonomous navigation of USVs, especially the issue of obstacle avoidance in complicated marine environment, is still a fundamental problem. After studying the characteristics of the complicated marine environment, we propose a novel adaptive obstacle avoidance algorithm for USVs, based on the Sarsa on-policy reinforcement learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm is composed of local avoidance module and adaptive learning module, which are organized by the "divide and conquer" strategy-based architecture. The course angle compensation strategy is proposed to offset the disturbances from sea wind and currents. In the design of payoff value function of the learning strategy, the course deviation angle and its tendency are introduced into action rewards and penalty policies. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by comparative experiments of simulations and sea trials in three sea-state marine environments. The results show that the algorithm can enhance the autonomous navigation capacity of USVs in complicated marine environments.
Adaptive Pinpoint and Fuel Efficient Mars Landing Using Reinforcement Learning
Brian Gaudet, Roberto Furfaro
2014, 1(4): 397-411.
Abstract(1219) HTML (23) PDF(20)
Future unconstrained and science-driven missions to Mars will require advanced guidance algorithms that are able to adapt to more demanding mission requirements, e.g. landing on selected locales with pinpoint accuracy while autonomously flying fuel-efficient trajectories. In this paper, a novel guidance algorithm designed by applying the principles of reinforcement learning (RL) theory is presented. The goal is to devise an adaptive guidance algorithm that enables robust, fuel efficient, and accurate landing without the need for off line trajectory generation and real-time tracking. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation campaign show that the algorithm is capable of autonomously following trajectories that are close to the optimal minimum-fuel solutions with an accuracy that surpasses that of past and future Mars missions. The proposed RL-based guidance algorithm exhibits a high degree of flexibility and can easily accommodate autonomous retargeting while maintaining accuracy and fuel efficiency. Although reinforcement learning and other similar machine learning techniques have been previously applied to aerospace guidance and control problems (e.g., autonomous helicopter control), this appears, to the best of the authors knowledge, to be the first application of reinforcement learning to the problem of autonomous planetary landing.
Online Adaptive Approximate Optimal Tracking Control with Simplified Dual Approximation Structure for Continuous-time Unknown Nonlinear Systems
Jing Na, Guido Herrmann
2014, 1(4): 412-422.
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This paper proposes an online adaptive approximate solution for the infinite-horizon optimal tracking control problem of continuous-time nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics. The requirement of the complete knowledge of system dynamics is avoided by employing an adaptive identifier in conjunction with a novel adaptive law, such that the estimated identifier weights converge to a small neighborhood of their ideal values. An adaptive steady-state controller is developed to maintain the desired tracking performance at the steady-state, and an adaptive optimal controller is designed to stabilize the tracking error dynamics in an optimal manner. For this purpose, a critic neural network (NN) is utilized to approximate the optimal value function of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, which is used in the construction of the optimal controller. The learning of two NNs, i.e., the identifier NN and the critic NN, is continuous and simultaneous by means of a novel adaptive law design methodology based on the parameter estimation error. Stability of the whole system consisting of the identifier NN, the critic NN and the optimal tracking control is guaranteed using Lyapunov theory; convergence to a near-optimal control law is proved. Simulation results exemplify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Bi-Objective Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Control for Systems with Input Uncertainty
Nhan T. Nguyen, Sivasubramanya N. Balakrishnan
2014, 1(4): 423-434.
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This paper presents a new model-reference adaptive control method based on a bi-objective optimal control formulation for systems with input uncertainty. A parallel predictor model is constructed to relate the predictor error to the estimation error of the control effectiveness matrix. In this work, we develop an optimal control modification adaptive control approach that seeks to minimize a bi-objective linear quadratic cost function of both the tracking error norm and the predictor error norm simultaneously. The resulting adaptive laws for the parametric uncertainty and control effectiveness uncertainty are dependent on both the tracking error and the predictor error, while the adaptive laws for the feedback gain and command feedforward gain are only dependent on the tracking error. The optimal control modification term provides robustness to the adaptive laws naturally from the optimal control framework. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control approach.
Reinforcement Learning Based Controller Synthesis for Flexible Aircraft Wings
Manoj Kumar, Karthikeyan Rajagopal, Sivasubramanya Nadar Balakrishnan, Nhan T. Nguyen
2014, 1(4): 435-448.
Abstract(1169) HTML (23) PDF(11)
Aeroelastic study of flight vehicles has been a subject of great interest and research in the last several years. Aileron reversal and flutter related problems are due in part to the elasticity of a typical airplane. Structural dynamics of an aircraft wing due to its aeroelastic nature are characterized by partial differential equations. Controller design for these systems is very complex as compared to lumped parameter systems defined by ordinary differential equations. In this paper, a stabilizing statefeedback controller design approach is presented for the heave dynamics of a wing-fuselage model. In this study, a continuous actuator in the spatial domain is assumed. A control methodology is developed by combining the technique of "proper orthogonal decomposition" and approximate dynamic programming. The proper orthogonal decomposition technique is used to obtain a low-order nonlinear lumped parameter model of the infinite dimensional system. Then a near optimal controller is designed using the single-network-adaptive-critic technique. Furthermore, to add robustness to the nominal single-network-adaptive-critic controller against matched uncertainties, an identifier based adaptive controller is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the single-network-adaptive-critic controller augmented with adaptive controller for infinite dimensional systems.