A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 10,  No. 7, 2023

Display Method:
Survey on AI and Machine Learning Techniques for Microgrid Energy Management Systems
Aditya Joshi, Skieler Capezza, Ahmad Alhaji, Mo-Yuen Chow
2023, 10(7): 1513-1529. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123657
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In the era of an energy revolution, grid decentralization has emerged as a viable solution to meet the increasing global energy demand by incorporating renewables at the distributed level. Microgrids are considered a driving component for accelerating grid decentralization. To optimally utilize the available resources and address potential challenges, there is a need to have an intelligent and reliable energy management system (EMS) for the microgrid. The artificial intelligence field has the potential to address the problems in EMS and can provide resilient, efficient, reliable, and scalable solutions. This paper presents an overview of existing conventional and AI-based techniques for energy management systems in microgrids. We analyze EMS methods for centralized, decentralized, and distributed microgrids separately. Then, we summarize machine learning techniques such as ANNs, federated learning, LSTMs, RNNs, and reinforcement learning for EMS objectives such as economic dispatch, optimal power flow, and scheduling. With the incorporation of AI, microgrids can achieve greater performance efficiency and more reliability for managing a large number of energy resources. However, challenges such as data privacy, security, scalability, explainability, etc., need to be addressed. To conclude, the authors state the possible future research directions to explore AI-based EMS’s potential in real-world applications.

Estimating the State of Health for Lithium-ion Batteries: A Particle Swarm Optimization-Assisted Deep Domain Adaptation Approach
Guijun Ma, Zidong Wang, Weibo Liu, Jingzhong Fang, Yong Zhang, Han Ding, Ye Yuan
2023, 10(7): 1530-1543. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123531
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The state of health (SOH) is a critical factor in evaluating the performance of the lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Due to various end-user behaviors, the LIBs exhibit different degradation modes, which makes it challenging to estimate the SOHs in a personalized way. In this article, we present a novel particle swarm optimization-assisted deep domain adaptation (PSO-DDA) method to estimate the SOH of LIBs in a personalized manner, where a new domain adaptation strategy is put forward to reduce cross-domain distribution discrepancy. The standard PSO algorithm is exploited to automatically adjust the chosen hyperparameters of developed DDA-based method. The proposed PSO-DDA method is validated by extensive experiments on two LIB datasets with different battery chemistry materials, ambient temperatures and charge-discharge configurations. Experimental results indicate that the proposed PSO-DDA method surpasses the convolutional neural network-based method and the standard DDA-based method. The PyTorch implementation of the proposed PSO-DDA method is available at



Coevolutionary Framework for Generalized Multimodal Multi-Objective Optimization
Wenhua Li, Xingyi Yao, Kaiwen Li, Rui Wang, Tao Zhang, Ling Wang
2023, 10(7): 1544-1556. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123609
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Most multimodal multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MMEAs) aim to find all global Pareto optimal sets (PSs) for a multimodal multi-objective optimization problem (MMOP). However, in real-world problems, decision makers (DMs) may be also interested in local PSs. Also, searching for both global and local PSs is more general in view of dealing with MMOPs, which can be seen as generalized MMOPs. Moreover, most state-of-the-art MMEAs exhibit poor convergence on high-dimension MMOPs and are unable to deal with constrained MMOPs. To address the above issues, we present a novel multimodal multi-objective coevolutionary algorithm (CoMMEA) to better produce both global and local PSs, and simultaneously, to improve the convergence performance in dealing with high-dimension MMOPs. Specifically, the CoMMEA introduces two archives to the search process, and coevolves them simultaneously through effective knowledge transfer. The convergence archive assists the CoMMEA to quickly approach the Pareto optimal front. The knowledge of the converged solutions is then transferred to the diversity archive which utilizes the local convergence indicator and the ϵ-dominance-based method to obtain global and local PSs effectively. Experimental results show that CoMMEA is competitive compared to seven state-of-the-art MMEAs on fifty-four complex MMOPs.

Constrained Moving Path Following Control for UAV With Robust Control Barrier Function
Zewei Zheng, Jiazhe Li, Zhiyuan Guan, Zongyu Zuo
2023, 10(7): 1557-1570. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123573
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This paper studies the moving path following (MPF) problem for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) under output constraints and wind disturbances. The vehicle is required to converge to a reference path moving with respect to the inertial frame, while the path following error is not expected to violate the predefined boundaries. Differently from existing moving path following guidance laws, the proposed method removes complex geometric transformation by formulating the moving path following problem into a second-order time-varying control problem. A nominal moving path following guidance law is designed with disturbances and their derivatives estimated by high-order disturbance observers. To guarantee that the path following error will not exceed the prescribed bounds, a robust control barrier function is developed and incorporated into controller design with quadratic program based framework. The proposed method does not require the initial position of the UAV to be within predefined boundaries. And the safety margin concept makes error-constraint be respected even if in a noisy environment. The proposed guidance law is validated through numerical simulations of shipboard landing and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiments.

Input Structure Design for Structural Controllability of Complex Networks
Lifu Wang, Zhaofei Li, Guotao Zhao, Ge Guo, Zhi Kong
2023, 10(7): 1571-1581. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123504
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This paper addresses the problem of the input design of large-scale complex networks. Two types of network components, redundant inaccessible strongly connected component (RISCC) and intermittent inaccessible strongly connected component (IISCC) are defined, and a subnetwork called a driver network is developed. Based on these, an efficient method is proposed to find the minimum number of controlled nodes to achieve structural complete controllability of a network, in the case that each input can act on multiple state nodes. The range of the number of input nodes to achieve minimal control, and the configuration method (the connection between the input nodes and the controlled nodes) are presented. All possible input solutions can be obtained by this method. Moreover, we give an example and some experiments on real-world networks to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

MUTS-Based Cooperative Target Stalking for A Multi-USV System
Chengcheng Wang, Yulong Wang, Qing-Long Han, Yunkai Wu
2023, 10(7): 1582-1592. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.106007
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This paper is concerned with the cooperative target stalking for a multi-unmanned surface vehicle (multi-USV) system. Based on the multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradient (MADDPG) algorithm, a multi-USV target stalking (MUTS) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, a V-type probabilistic data extraction method is proposed for the first time to overcome shortcomings of the MADDPG algorithm. The advantages of the proposed method are twofold: 1) it can reduce the amount of data and shorten training time; 2) it can filter out more important data in the experience buffer for training. Secondly, in order to avoid the collisions of USVs during the stalking process, an action constraint method called Safe DDPG is introduced. Finally, the MUTS algorithm and some existing algorithms are compared in cooperative target stalking scenarios. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MUTS algorithm in stalking tasks, mission operating scenarios and reward functions are well designed in this paper. The proposed MUTS algorithm can help the multi-USV system avoid internal collisions during the mission execution. Moreover, compared with some existing algorithms, the newly proposed one can provide a higher convergence speed and a narrower convergence domain.

Pavement Cracks Coupled With Shadows: A New Shadow-Crack Dataset and A Shadow-Removal-Oriented Crack Detection Approach
Lili Fan, Shen Li, Ying Li, Bai Li, Dongpu Cao, Fei-Yue Wang
2023, 10(7): 1593-1607. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123447
Abstract(945) HTML (218) PDF(167)

Automatic pavement crack detection is a critical task for maintaining the pavement stability and driving safety. The task is challenging because the shadows on the pavement may have similar intensity with the crack, which interfere with the crack detection performance. Till to the present, there still lacks efficient algorithm models and training datasets to deal with the interference brought by the shadows. To fill in the gap, we made several contributions as follows. First, we proposed a new pavement shadow and crack dataset, which contains a variety of shadow and pavement pixel size combinations. It also covers all common cracks (linear cracks and network cracks), placing higher demands on crack detection methods. Second, we designed a two-step shadow-removal-oriented crack detection approach: SROCD, which improves the performance of the algorithm by first removing the shadow and then detecting it. In addition to shadows, the method can cope with other noise disturbances. Third, we explored the mechanism of how shadows affect crack detection. Based on this mechanism, we propose a data augmentation method based on the difference in brightness values, which can adapt to brightness changes caused by seasonal and weather changes. Finally, we introduced a residual feature augmentation algorithm to detect small cracks that can predict sudden disasters, and the algorithm improves the performance of the model overall. We compare our method with the state-of-the-art methods on existing pavement crack datasets and the shadow-crack dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our method.

Local-to-Global Causal Reasoning for Cross-Document Relation Extraction
Haoran Wu, Xiuyi Chen, Zefa Hu, Jing Shi, Shuang Xu, Bo Xu
2023, 10(7): 1608-1621. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123540
Abstract(463) HTML (144) PDF(108)

Cross-document relation extraction (RE), as an extension of information extraction, requires integrating information from multiple documents retrieved from open domains with a large number of irrelevant or confusing noisy texts. Previous studies focus on the attention mechanism to construct the connection between different text features through semantic similarity. However, similarity-based methods cannot distinguish valid information from highly similar retrieved documents well. How to design an effective algorithm to implement aggregated reasoning in confusing information with similar features still remains an open issue. To address this problem, we design a novel local-to-global causal reasoning (LGCR) network for cross-document RE, which enables efficient distinguishing, filtering and global reasoning on complex information from a causal perspective. Specifically, we propose a local causal estimation algorithm to estimate the causal effect, which is the first trial to use the causal reasoning independent of feature similarity to distinguish between confusing and valid information in cross-document RE. Furthermore, based on the causal effect, we propose a causality guided global reasoning algorithm to filter the confusing information and achieve global reasoning. Experimental results under the closed and the open settings of the large-scale dataset CodRED demonstrate our LGCR network significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and validate the effectiveness of causal reasoning in confusing information processing.

Secure Underwater Distributed Antenna Systems: A Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning Approach
Chaofeng Wang, Zhicheng Bi, Yaping Wan
2023, 10(7): 1622-1624. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123366
Abstract(370) HTML (48) PDF(86)
A Privacy-Preserving Distributed Subgradient Algorithm for the Economic Dispatch Problem in Smart Grid
Qian Xu, Chutian Yu, Xiang Yuan, Zao Fu, Hongzhe Liu
2023, 10(7): 1625-1627. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.106028
Abstract(292) HTML (61) PDF(67)
Tensor Distribution Regression Based on the 3D Conventional Neural Networks
Lin Chen, Xin Luo
2023, 10(7): 1628-1630. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123591
Abstract(423) HTML (71) PDF(58)
Relaxed Stability Criteria for Delayed Generalized Neural Networks via a Novel Reciprocally Convex Combination
Yibo Wang, Changchun Hua, PooGyeon Park
2023, 10(7): 1631-1633. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.106025
Abstract(316) HTML (54) PDF(64)
Novel Criteria on Finite-Time Stability of Impulsive Stochastic Nonlinear Systems
Lanfeng Hua, Hong Zhu, Shouming Zhong, Kaibo Shi, Jinde Cao
2023, 10(7): 1634-1636. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123276
Abstract(254) HTML (48) PDF(84)
Fundamental Limits of Doppler Shift-Based, ToA-Based, and TDoA-Based Underwater Localization
Zijun Gong, Cheng Li, Ruoyu Su
2023, 10(7): 1637-1639. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123282
Abstract(247) HTML (94) PDF(45)
RGCNU: Recurrent Graph Convolutional Network With Uncertainty Estimation for Remaining Useful Life Prediction
Qiwu Zhu, Qingyu Xiong, Zhengyi Yang, Yang Yu
2023, 10(7): 1640-1642. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123369
Abstract(400) HTML (55) PDF(69)