A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 10,  No. 8, 2023

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New Control Paradigm for Industry 5.0: From Big Models to Foundation Control and Management
Fei-Yue Wang
2023, 10(8): 1643-1646. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123768
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Attacks Against Cross-Chain Systems and Defense Approaches: A Contemporary Survey
Li Duan, Yangyang Sun, Wei Ni, Weiping Ding, Jiqiang Liu, Wei Wang
2023, 10(8): 1647-1667. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123642
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The blockchain cross-chain is a significant technology for inter-chain interconnection and value transfer among different blockchain networks. Cross-chain overcomes the “information island” problem of the closed blockchain network and is increasingly applied to multiple critical areas such as finance and the internet of things (IoT). Blockchain can be divided into three main categories of blockchain networks: public blockchains, private blockchains, and consortium blockchains. However, there are differences in block structures, consensus mechanisms, and complex working mechanisms among heterogeneous blockchains. The fragility of the cross-chain system itself makes the cross-chain system face some potential security and privacy threats. This paper discusses security defects on the cross-chain implementation mechanism, and discusses the impact of the structural features of blockchain networks on cross-chain security. In terms of cross-chain intercommunication, a cross-chain attack can be divided into a multi-chain combination attack, native chain attack, and inter-chain attack diffusion. Then various security threats and attack paths faced by the cross-chain system are analyzed. At last, the corresponding security defense methods of cross-chain security threats and future research directions for cross-chain applications are put forward.

Hyperspectral Image Super-Resolution Meets Deep Learning: A Survey and Perspective
Xinya Wang, Qian Hu, Yingsong Cheng, Jiayi Ma
2023, 10(8): 1668-1691. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123681
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Hyperspectral image super-resolution, which refers to reconstructing the high-resolution hyperspectral image from the input low-resolution observation, aims to improve the spatial resolution of the hyperspectral image, which is beneficial for subsequent applications. The development of deep learning has promoted significant progress in hyperspectral image super-resolution, and the powerful expression capabilities of deep neural networks make the predicted results more reliable. Recently, several latest deep learning technologies have made the hyperspectral image super-resolution method explode. However, a comprehensive review and analysis of the latest deep learning methods from the hyperspectral image super-resolution perspective is absent. To this end, in this survey, we first introduce the concept of hyperspectral image super-resolution and classify the methods from the perspectives with or without auxiliary information. Then, we review the learning-based methods in three categories, including single hyperspectral image super-resolution, panchromatic-based hyperspectral image super-resolution, and multispectral-based hyperspectral image super-resolution. Subsequently, we summarize the commonly used hyperspectral dataset, and the evaluations for some representative methods in three categories are performed qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, we briefly introduce several typical applications of hyperspectral image super-resolution, including ground object classification, urban change detection, and ecosystem monitoring. Finally, we provide the conclusion and challenges in existing learning-based methods, looking forward to potential future research directions.

Steps Toward Industry 5.0: Building “6S” Parallel Industries With Cyber-Physical-Social Intelligence
Xingxia Wang, Jing Yang, Yutong Wang, Qinghai Miao, Fei-Yue Wang, Aijun Zhao, Jian-Ling Deng, Lingxi Li, Xiaoxiang Na, Ljubo Vlacic
2023, 10(8): 1692-1703. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123753
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Very recently, intensive discussions and studies on Industry 5.0 have sprung up and caused the attention of researchers, entrepreneurs, and policymakers from various sectors around the world. However, there is no consensus on why and what is Industry 5.0 yet. In this paper, we define Industry 5.0 from its philosophical and historical origin and evolution, emphasize its new thinking on virtual-real duality and human-machine interaction, and introduce its new theory and technology based on parallel intelligence (PI), artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution (the ACP method), and cyber-physical-social systems (CPSS). Case studies and applications of Industry 5.0 over the last decade have been briefly summarized and analyzed with suggestions for its future development. We believe that Industry 5.0 of virtual-real interactive parallel industries has great potentials and is critical for building smart societies. Steps are outlined to ensure a roadmap that would lead to a smooth transition from CPS-based Industry 4.0 to CPSS-based Industry 5.0 for a better world which is Safe in physical spaces, Secure in cyberspaces, Sustainable in ecology, Sensitive in individual privacy and rights, Service for all, and Smartness of all.

Development of a Bias Compensating Q-Learning Controller for a Multi-Zone HVAC Facility
Syed Ali Asad Rizvi, Amanda J. Pertzborn, Zongli Lin
2023, 10(8): 1704-1715. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123624
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We present the development of a bias compensating reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm that optimizes thermal comfort (by minimizing tracking error) and control utilization (by penalizing setpoint deviations) in a multi-zone heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) lab facility subject to unmeasurable disturbances and unknown dynamics. It is shown that the presence of unmeasurable disturbance results in an inconsistent learning equation in traditional RL controllers leading to parameter estimation bias (even with integral action support), and in the extreme case, the divergence of the learning algorithm. We demonstrate this issue by applying the popular Q-learning algorithm to linear quadratic regulation (LQR) of a multi-zone HVAC environment and showing that, even with integral support, the algorithm exhibits bias issue during the learning phase when the HVAC disturbance is unmeasurable due to unknown heat gains, occupancy variations, light sources, and outside weather changes. To address this difficulty, we present a bias compensating learning equation that learns a lumped bias term as a result of disturbances (and possibly other sources) in conjunction with the optimal control parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only recovers the bias-free optimal control parameters but it does so without explicitly learning the dynamic model or estimating the disturbances, demonstrating the effectiveness of the algorithm in addressing the above challenges.

Improved Capon Estimator for High-Resolution DOA Estimation and Its Statistical Analysis
Weiliang Zuo, Jingmin Xin, Changnong Liu, Nanning Zheng, Akira Sano
2023, 10(8): 1716-1729. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123549
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Despite some efforts and attempts have been made to improve the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation performance of the standard Capon beamformer (SCB) in array processing, rigorous statistical performance analyses of these modified Capon estimators are still lacking. This paper studies an improved Capon estimator (ICE) for estimating the DOAs of multiple uncorrelated narrowband signals, where the higher-order inverse (sample) array covariance matrix is used in the Capon-like cost function. By establishing the relationship between this nonparametric estimator and the parametric and classic subspace-based MUSIC (multiple signal classification), it is clarified that as long as the power order of the inverse covariance matrix is increased to reduce the influence of signal subspace components in the ICE, the estimation performance of the ICE becomes equivalent to that of the MUSIC regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore the statistical performance of the ICE is analyzed, and the large-sample mean-squared-error (MSE) expression of the estimated DOA is derived. Finally the effectiveness and the theoretical analysis of the ICE are substantiated through numerical examples, where the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRB) is used to evaluate the validity of the derived asymptotic MSE expression.

Scheduling Dual-Arm Multi-Cluster Tools With Regulation of Post-Processing Time
Qinghua Zhu, Bin Li, Yan Hou, Hongpeng Li, Naiqi Wu
2023, 10(8): 1730-1742. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123189
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As wafer circuit width shrinks down to less than ten nanometers in recent years, stringent quality control in the wafer manufacturing process is increasingly important. Thanks to the coupling of neighboring cluster tools and coordination of multiple robots in a multi-cluster tool, wafer production scheduling becomes rather complicated. After a wafer is processed, due to high-temperature chemical reactions in a chamber, the robot should be controlled to take it out of the processing chamber at the right time. In order to ensure the uniformity of integrated circuits on wafers, it is highly desirable to make the differences in wafer post-processing time among the individual tools in a multi-cluster tool as small as possible. To achieve this goal, for the first time, this work aims to find an optimal schedule for a dual-arm multi-cluster tool to regulate the wafer post-processing time. To do so, we propose polynomial-time algorithms to find an optimal schedule, which can achieve the highest throughput, and minimize the total post-processing time of the processing steps. We propose a linear program model and another algorithm to balance the differences in the post-processing time between any pair of adjacent cluster tools. Two industrial examples are given to illustrate the application and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Echo State Network With Probabilistic Regularization for Time Series Prediction
Xiufang Chen, Mei Liu, Shuai Li
2023, 10(8): 1743-1753. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123489
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Recent decades have witnessed a trend that the echo state network (ESN) is widely utilized in field of time series prediction due to its powerful computational abilities. However, most of the existing research on ESN is conducted under the assumption that data is free of noise or polluted by the Gaussian noise, which lacks robustness or even fails to solve real-world tasks. This work handles this issue by proposing a probabilistic regularized ESN (PRESN) with robustness guaranteed. Specifically, we design a novel objective function for minimizing both the mean and variance of modeling error, and then a scheme is derived for getting output weights of the PRESN. Furthermore, generalization performance, robustness, and unbiased estimation abilities of the PRESN are revealed by theoretical analyses. Finally, experiments on a benchmark dataset and two real-world datasets are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed PRESN. The source code is publicly available at https://github.com/LongJin-lab/probabilistic-regularized-echo-state-network.

Neural-Network-Based Adaptive Finite-Time Control for a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Helicopter System With an Event-Triggering Mechanism
Zhijia Zhao, Jian Zhang, Shouyan Chen, Wei He, Keum-Shik Hong
2023, 10(8): 1754-1765. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123453
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Helicopter systems present numerous benefits over fixed-wing aircraft in several fields of application. Developing control schemes for improving the tracking accuracy of such systems is crucial. This paper proposes a neural-network (NN)-based adaptive finite-time control for a two-degree-of-freedom helicopter system. In particular, a radial basis function NN is adopted to solve uncertainty in the helicopter system. Furthermore, an event-triggering mechanism (ETM) with a switching threshold is proposed to alleviate the communication burden on the system. By proposing an adaptive parameter, a bounded estimation, and a smooth function approach, the effect of network measurement errors is effectively compensated for while simultaneously avoiding the Zeno phenomenon. Additionally, the developed adaptive finite-time control technique based on an NN guarantees finite-time convergence of the tracking error, thus enhancing the control accuracy of the system. In addition, the Lyapunov direct method demonstrates that the closed-loop system is semiglobally finite-time stable. Finally, simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the control strategy.

Nonconvex Noise-Tolerant Neural Model for Repetitive Motion of Omnidirectional Mobile Manipulators
Zhongbo Sun, Shijun Tang, Jiliang Zhang, Junzhi Yu
2023, 10(8): 1766-1768. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123273
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A Coverage Optimization Algorithm for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks based on Dijkstra Method
Meiqin Tang, Jiawen Sheng, Shaoyan Sun
2023, 10(8): 1769-1771. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123279
Abstract(142) HTML (22) PDF(35)
An Isomerism Learning Model to Solve Time-Varying Problems Through Intelligent Collaboration
Zhihao Hao, Guancheng Wang, Bob Zhang, Leyuan Fang, Haisheng Li
2023, 10(8): 1772-1774. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123360
Abstract(131) HTML (19) PDF(25)
Underwater Data-Driven Positioning Estimation Using Local Spatiotemporal Nonlinear Correlation
Chengming Luo, Luxue Wang, Xudong Yang, Gaifang Xin, Biao Wang
2023, 10(8): 1775-1777. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123288
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Relay-Switching-Based Fixed-Time Tracking Controller for Nonholonomic State-Constrained Systems: Design and Experiment
Zhongcai Zhang, Jinshan Bian, Kang Wu
2023, 10(8): 1778-1780. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.106046
Abstract(237) HTML (26) PDF(83)