A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 8,  No. 11, 2021

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Decentralized Resilient H Load Frequency Control for Cyber-Physical Power Systems Under DoS Attacks
Xin Zhao, Suli Zou, Zhongjing Ma
2021, 8(11): 1737-1751. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004162
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This paper designs a decentralized resilient H load frequency control (LFC) scheme for multi-area cyber-physical power systems (CPPSs). Under the network-based control framework, the sampled measurements are transmitted through the communication networks, which may be attacked by energy-limited denial-of-service (DoS) attacks with a characterization of the maximum count of continuous data losses (resilience index). Each area is controlled in a decentralized mode, and the impacts on one area from other areas via their interconnections are regarded as the additional load disturbance of this area. Then, the closed-loop LFC system of each area under DoS attacks is modeled as an aperiodic sampled-data control system with external disturbances. Under this modeling, a decentralized resilient H scheme is presented to design the state-feedback controllers with guaranteed H performance and resilience index based on a novel transmission interval-dependent loop functional method. When given the controllers, the proposed scheme can obtain a less conservative H performance and resilience index that the LFC system can tolerate. The effectiveness of the proposed LFC scheme is evaluated on a one-area CPPS and two three-area CPPSs under DoS attacks.
Adaptive Consensus of Non-Strict Feedback Switched Multi-Agent Systems With Input Saturations
Zhanjie Li, Jun Zhao
2021, 8(11): 1752-1761. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004165
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This paper considers the leader-following consensus for a class of nonlinear switched multi-agent systems (MASs) with non-strict feedback forms and input saturations under unknown switching mechanisms. First, in virtue of Gaussian error functions, the saturation nonlinearities are represented by asymmetric saturation models. Second, neural networks are utilized to approximate some unknown packaged functions, and the structural property of Gaussian basis functions is introduced to handle the non-strict feedback terms. Third, by using the backstepping process, a common Lyapunov function is constructed for all the subsystems of the followers. At last, we propose an adaptive consensus protocol, under which the tracking error under arbitrary switching converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the proposed protocol is illustrated by a simulation example.
A Novel Product Remaining Useful Life Prediction Approach Considering Fault Effects
Jingdong Lin, Zheng Lin, Guobo Liao, Hongpeng Yin
2021, 8(11): 1762-1773. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004168
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In this paper, a novel remaining useful life prediction approach considering fault effects is proposed. The Wiener process is used to construct the degradation process of single performance characteristic with the fault effects. The first passage time based remaining useful life distribution is calculated by assuming fault occurrence moment is a random variable and follows a certain distribution. Expectation maximization algorithm is employed to estimate model parameters, where the fault occurrence moment is considered as a missing data. Finally, a Copula function is used to describe the dependence between the multiple performance characteristics and derive joint remaining useful life (RUL) distribution of product with the fault effects. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by the experiments of turbofan engines.
A New Safety Assessment Method Based on Belief Rule Base With Attribute Reliability
Zhichao Feng, Wei He, Zhijie Zhou, Xiaojun Ban, Changhua Hu, Xiaoxia Han
2021, 8(11): 1774-1785. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003399
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Safety assessment is one of important aspects in health management. In safety assessment for practical systems, three problems exist: lack of observation information, high system complexity and environment interference. Belief rule base with attribute reliability (BRB-r) is an expert system that provides a useful way for dealing with these three problems. In BRB-r, once the input information is unreliable, the reliability of belief rule is influenced, which further influences the accuracy of its output belief degree. On the other hand, when many system characteristics exist, the belief rule combination will explode in BRB-r, and the BRB-r based safety assessment model becomes too complicated to be applied. Thus, in this paper, to balance the complexity and accuracy of the safety assessment model, a new safety assessment model based on BRB-r with considering belief rule reliability is developed for the first time. In the developed model, a new calculation method of the belief rule reliability is proposed with considering both attribute reliability and global ignorance. Moreover, to reduce the influence of uncertainty of expert knowledge, an optimization model for the developed safety assessment model is constructed. A case study of safety assessment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tank is conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the new developed model.
Enhanced Intrusion Detection System for an EH IoT Architecture Using a Cooperative UAV Relay and Friendly UAV Jammer
Van Nhan Vo, Hung Tran, Chakchai So-In
2021, 8(11): 1786-1799. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004171
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In this paper, the detection capabilities and system performance of an energy harvesting (EH) Internet of Things (IoT) architecture in the presence of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) eavesdropper (UE) are investigated. The communication protocol is divided into two phases. In the first phase, a UAV relay (UR) cooperates with a friendly UAV jammer (UJ) to detect the UE, and the UR and UJ harvest energy from a power beacon (PB). In the second phase, a ground base station (GBS) sends a confidential signal to the UR using non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA); the UR then uses its harvested energy to forward this confidential signal to IoT destinations (IDs) using the decode-and-forward (DF) technique. Simultaneously, the UJ uses its harvested energy to emit an artificial signal to combat the detected UE. A closed-form expression for the probability of detecting the UE (the detection probability, DP) is derived to analyze the detection performance. Furthermore, the intercept probability (IP) and throughput of the considered IoT architecture are determined. Accordingly, we identify the optimal altitudes for the UR and UJ to enhance the system and secrecy performance. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to verify our approach.
Data-Driven Heuristic Assisted Memetic Algorithm for Efficient Inter-Satellite Link Scheduling in the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
Yonghao Du, Ling Wang, Lining Xing, Jungang Yan, Mengsi Cai
2021, 8(11): 1800-1816. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004174
Abstract(932) HTML (708) PDF(55)
Inter-satellite link (ISL) scheduling is required by the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) to guarantee the system ranging and communication performance. In the BDS, a great number of ISL scheduling instances must be addressed every day, which will certainly spend a lot of time via normal metaheuristics and hardly meet the quick-response requirements that often occur in real-world applications. To address the dual requirements of normal and quick-response ISL schedulings, a data-driven heuristic assisted memetic algorithm (DHMA) is proposed in this paper, which includes a high-performance memetic algorithm (MA) and a data-driven heuristic. In normal situations, the high-performance MA that hybridizes parallelism, competition, and evolution strategies is performed for high-quality ISL scheduling solutions over time. When in quick-response situations, the data-driven heuristic is performed to quickly schedule high-probability ISLs according to a prediction model, which is trained from the high-quality MA solutions. The main idea of the DHMA is to address normal and quick-response schedulings separately, while high-quality normal scheduling data are trained for quick-response use. In addition, this paper also presents an easy-to-understand ISL scheduling model and its NP-completeness. A seven-day experimental study with 10 080 one-minute ISL scheduling instances shows the efficient performance of the DHMA in addressing the ISL scheduling in normal (in 84 hours) and quick-response (in 0.62 hour) situations, which can well meet the dual scheduling requirements in real-world BDS applications.
Static Force-Based Modeling and Parameter Estimation for a Deformable Link Composed of Passive Spherical Joints With Preload Forces
Gaofeng Li, Dezhen Song, Lei Sun, Shan Xu, Hongpeng Wang, Jingtai Liu
2021, 8(11): 1817-1826. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911549
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To balance the contradiction between higher flexibility and heavier load bearing capacity, we present a novel deformable manipulator which is composed of active rigid joints and deformable links. The deformable link is composed of passive spherical joints with preload forces between socket-ball surfaces. To estimate the load bearing capacity of a deformable link, we present a static force-based model of spherical joint with preload force and analyze the static force propagation in the deformable link. This yields an important result that the load bearing capacity of a spherical joint only depends on its radius, preload force, and static friction coefficient. We further develop a parameter estimation method to estimate the product of preload force and static friction coefficient. The experimental results validate our model. 80.4% of percentage errors on the maximum payload mass prediction are below 15%.
Pseudo-Predictor Feedback Control for Multiagent Systems with Both State and Input Delays
Qingsong Liu
2021, 8(11): 1827-1836. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004180
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This paper is concerned with the consensus problem for high-order continuous-time multiagent systems with both state and input delays. A novel approach referred to as pseudo-predictor feedback protocol is proposed. Unlike the predictor-based feedback protocol which utilizes the open-loop dynamics to predict the future states, the pseudo-predictor feedback protocol uses the closed-loop dynamics of the multiagent systems to predict the future agent states. Full-order/reduced-order observer-based pseudo-predictor feedback protocols are proposed, and it is shown that the consensus is achieved and the input delay is compensated by the proposed protocols. Necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing the stability of the integral delay systems are provided in terms of the stability of the series of retarded-type time-delay systems. Furthermore, compared with the existing predictor-based protocols, the proposed pseudo-predictor feedback protocol is independent of the input signals of the neighboring agents and is easier to implement. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
Global Practical Stabilization of Discrete-Time Switched Affine Systems via a General Quadratic Lyapunov Function and a Decentralized Ellipsoid
Mohammad Hejri
2021, 8(11): 1837-1851. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004183
Abstract(739) HTML (491) PDF(54)
This paper addresses the problem of global practical stabilization of discrete-time switched affine systems via state-dependent switching rules. Several attempts have been made to solve this problem via different types of a common quadratic Lyapunov function and an ellipsoid. These classical results require either the quadratic Lyapunov function or the employed ellipsoid to be of the centralized type. In some cases, the ellipsoids are defined dependently as the level sets of a decentralized Lyapunov function. In this paper, we extend the existing results by the simultaneous use of a general decentralized Lyapunov function and a decentralized ellipsoid parameterized independently. The proposed conditions provide less conservative results than existing works in the sense of the ultimate invariant set of attraction size. Two different approaches are proposed to extract the ultimate invariant set of attraction with a minimum size, i.e., a purely numerical method and a numerical-analytical one. In the former, both invariant and attractiveness conditions are imposed to extract the final set of matrix inequalities. The latter is established on a principle that the attractiveness of a set implies its invariance. Thus, the stability conditions are derived based on only the attractiveness property as a set of matrix inequalities with a smaller dimension. Illustrative examples are presented to prove the satisfactory operation of the proposed stabilization methods.
Energy-Efficient Optimal Guaranteed Cost Intermittent-Switch Control of a Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System
Jun Mei, Zhenyu Lu, Junhao Hu, Yuling Fan
2021, 8(11): 1852-1866. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003447
Abstract(1095) HTML (688) PDF(47)
To improve the energy efficiency of a direct expansion air conditioning (DX A/C) system while guaranteeing occupancy comfort, a hierarchical controller for a DX A/C system with uncertain parameters is proposed. The control strategy consists of an open loop optimization controller and a closed-loop guaranteed cost periodically intermittent-switch controller (GCPISC). The error dynamics system of the closed-loop control is modelled based on the GCPISC principle. The difference, compared to the previous DX A/C system control methods, is that the controller designed in this paper performs control at discrete times. For the ease of designing the controller, a series of matrix inequalities are derived to be the sufficient conditions of the lower-layer closed-loop GCPISC controller. In this way, the DX A/C system output is derived to follow the optimal references obtained through the upper-layer open loop controller in exponential time, and the energy efficiency of the system is improved. Moreover, a static optimization problem is addressed for obtaining an optimal GCPISC law to ensure a minimum upper bound on the DX A/C system performance considering energy efficiency and output tracking error. The advantages of the designed hierarchical controller for a DX A/C system with uncertain parameters are demonstrated through some simulation results.