A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation
Volume 8 Issue 11
Nov.  2021

IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

  • JCR Impact Factor: 7.847, Top 10% (SCI Q1)
    CiteScore: 13.0, Top 5% (Q1)
    Google Scholar h5-index: 64, TOP 7
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jun Mei, Zhenyu Lu, Junhao Hu and Yuling Fan, "Energy-Efficient Optimal Guaranteed Cost Intermittent-Switch Control of a Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1852-1866, Nov. 2021. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003447
Citation: Jun Mei, Zhenyu Lu, Junhao Hu and Yuling Fan, "Energy-Efficient Optimal Guaranteed Cost Intermittent-Switch Control of a Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1852-1866, Nov. 2021. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003447

Energy-Efficient Optimal Guaranteed Cost Intermittent-Switch Control of a Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System

doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003447
Funds:  This paper was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61773220, 61876192, 61907021), the National Natural Science Foundation of Hubei (ZRMS2019000752) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2662018QD057, CZT20022, CZT20020), Academic Team in Universities (KTZ20051), and School Talent Funds (YZZ19004)
More Information
  • To improve the energy efficiency of a direct expansion air conditioning (DX A/C) system while guaranteeing occupancy comfort, a hierarchical controller for a DX A/C system with uncertain parameters is proposed. The control strategy consists of an open loop optimization controller and a closed-loop guaranteed cost periodically intermittent-switch controller (GCPISC). The error dynamics system of the closed-loop control is modelled based on the GCPISC principle. The difference, compared to the previous DX A/C system control methods, is that the controller designed in this paper performs control at discrete times. For the ease of designing the controller, a series of matrix inequalities are derived to be the sufficient conditions of the lower-layer closed-loop GCPISC controller. In this way, the DX A/C system output is derived to follow the optimal references obtained through the upper-layer open loop controller in exponential time, and the energy efficiency of the system is improved. Moreover, a static optimization problem is addressed for obtaining an optimal GCPISC law to ensure a minimum upper bound on the DX A/C system performance considering energy efficiency and output tracking error. The advantages of the designed hierarchical controller for a DX A/C system with uncertain parameters are demonstrated through some simulation results.

     

  • loading
  • [1]
    “Building and climate change,” The United Nations Environment Programme Sustainble Buildings and Climate Initiative (UNEP SBCI), Paris, France, Tech. Rep. CEDEX 09, 2009.
    [2]
    Q. Wei, D. Liu, Y. Liu, and R. Song, “Optimal constrained self-learning battery sequential management in microgrid via adaptive dynamic programming,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 168–176, 2017. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510262
    [3]
    D. Liu, Y. Xu, Q. Wei, and X. Liu, “Residential energy scheduling for variable weather solar energy based on adaptive dynamic programming,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 36–46, 2018. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510739
    [4]
    B. Wang and X. Xia, “Optimal maintenance planning for building energy efficiency retrofitting from optimization and control system perspectives,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 96, pp. 299–308, 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.03.032
    [5]
    X. Ye, X. Xia, L. Zhang, and B. Zhu, “Optimal maintenance planning for sustainable energy efficiency lighting retrofit projects by a control system approach,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 37, pp. 1–10, 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.conengprac.2014.12.014
    [6]
    Y. Fan and X. Xia, “A multi-objective optimization model for energyefficiency building envelope retrofitting plan with rooftop pv system installation and maintenance,” Applied Energy, vol. 189, pp. 327–335, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.12.077
    [7]
    B. P. Rasmussen and A. G. Alleyne, “Gain scheduled control of an air conditioning system using the youla parameterization,” IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1216–1225, 2010. doi: 10.1109/TCST.2009.2035104
    [8]
    M. Ye and G. Hu, “Game design and analysis for price-based demand response: An aggregate game approach,” IEEE Trans. Cybernetics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 720–730, 2017. doi: 10.1109/TCYB.2016.2524452
    [9]
    N. K. Dhar, N. K. Verma, and L. Behera, “Adaptive critic-based eventtriggered control for HVAC system,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Informatics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 178–188, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TII.2017.2725899
    [10]
    Y. Xia, S. Deng, and M. Chan, “Inherent operational characteristics and operational stability of a variable speed direct expansion air conditioning system,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 113, pp. 268–277, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.073
    [11]
    Z. Wu, Q. Jia, and X. Guan, “Optimal control of multiroom HVAC system: An event-based approach,” IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 662–669, 2016.
    [12]
    Y. Ma, J. Matuo, and F. Borrelli, “Stochastic model predictive control for building HVAC systems: Complexity and conservatism,” IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 101–116, 2015. doi: 10.1109/TCST.2014.2313736
    [13]
    W. Mai and C. Y. Chung, “Economic MPC of aggregating commercial buildings for providing flexible power reserve,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 2685–2694, 2015. doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2014.2365615
    [14]
    K. Zhou and L. Cai, “A dynamic water-filling method for real-time HVAC load control based on model predictive control,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 1405–1414, 2015. doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2014.2340881
    [15]
    G. Y. Yun, J. Choi, and J. T. Kim, “Energy performance of direct expansion air handling unit in office buildings,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 77, pp. 425–431, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.03.039
    [16]
    Q. Qi and S. Deng, “Multivariable control of indoor air temperature and humidity in a direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A/C) system,” Building and Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1659–1667, 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.11.001
    [17]
    J. Mei and X. Xia, “Energy-efficient predictive control of indoor thermal comfort and air quality in a direct expansion air conditioning system,” Applied Energy, vol. 195, pp. 439–452, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.076
    [18]
    J. Mei, X. Xia, and M. Song, “An autonomous hierarchical control for improving indoor comfort and energy efficiency of a direct expansion air conditioning system,” Applied Energy, vol. 221, pp. 450–463, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.03.162
    [19]
    L. Xia, M. Chan, and S. Deng, “Development of a method for calculating steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio of direct expansion air conditioning units,” Applied Energy, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 1198–1207, 2008. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.03.007
    [20]
    J. Mei and X. Xia, “Distributed control for a multi-evaporator air conditioning system,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 90, pp. 85–100, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.conengprac.2019.06.017
    [21]
    S. Chang and T. Peng, “Adaptive guaranteed cost control of systems with uncertain parameters,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 474–483, 1972. doi: 10.1109/TAC.1972.1100037
    [22]
    D. Liu, D. Wang, F. Wang, H. Li, and X. Yang, “Neural-networkbased online HJB solution for optimal robust guaranteed cost control of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems,” IEEE Trans. Cybernetics, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 2834–2847, 2014. doi: 10.1109/TCYB.2014.2357896
    [23]
    H. Li, J. Wang, L. Wu, H. Lam, and Y. Gao, “Optimal guaranteed cost sliding-mode control of interval type-2 fuzzy time-delay systems,” IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Systems, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 246–257, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TFUZZ.2017.2648855
    [24]
    J. Mei, Z. Lu, J. Hu, and Y. Fan, “Guaranteed cost finite-time control of uncertain coupled neural networks, ” IEEE Trans. Cybernetics, to be published, Apr. 2020. DOI: 10.1109/TCYB.2020.2971265.
    [25]
    J. Mei, M. Jiang, W. Xu, and B. Wang, “Finite-time synchronization control of complex dynamical networks with time delay,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 2462–2478, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.cnsns.2012.11.009
    [26]
    F. Yang, J. Mei, and Z. Wu, “Finite-time synchronisation of neural networks with discrete and distributed delays via periodically intermittent memory feedback control,” IET Control Theory Applications, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 1630–1640, 2016. doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2015.1326
    [27]
    X. Liu and T. Chen, “Synchronization of nonlinear coupled networks via aperiodically intermittent pinning control,” IEEE Trans. Neural Networks and Learning Systems, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 113–126, 2015. doi: 10.1109/TNNLS.2014.2311838
    [28]
    X. Wang, S. Li, and T. Tang, “Periodically intermittent cruise control of heavy haul train with uncertain parameters,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 356, no. 13, pp. 6989–7008, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jfranklin.2019.06.009
    [29]
    Y. Fan, J. Mei, H. Liu, Y. Fan, F. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Fast synchronization of complex networks via aperiodically intermittent sliding mode control,” Neural Processing Letters, vol. 51, pp. 1331–1352, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s11063-019-10145-2
    [30]
    H. Chen, Z. I. Bell, P. Deptula, and W. E. Dixon, “A switched systems approach to path following with intermittent state feedback,” IEEE Trans. Robotics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 725–733, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TRO.2019.2899269
    [31]
    W. Chen and S. Deng, “Development of a dynamic model for a DX VAV air conditioning system,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 47, no. 18, pp. 2900–2924, 2006.
    [32]
    Q. Qi and S. Deng, “Multivariable control-oriented modeling of a direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A/C) system,” Int. J. Refrigeration, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 841–849, 2008. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2007.10.009
    [33]
    V. Vakiloroaya, B. Samali, and K. Pishghadam, “Investigation of energyefficient strategy for direct expansion air-cooled air conditioning systems,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 84–93, 2014.
    [34]
    2004 Standard For Performance Rating of Positive Displacement Refrigerant Compressors and Compressor Units, ANSI/AHRI Standard 540, Arlington, VA 22201, USA, 2004.
    [35]
    I. R. Petersen, “A stabilization algorithm for a class of uncertain linear systems,” Systems &Control Letters, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 351–357, 1987.
    [36]
    S. Boyd, L. Ghaoui, E. Feron, and V. Balakrishnan, Linear Matrix Inequalities in System and Control Theory. Philadelphia, USA: Studies in Applied Mathematics (SIAM), 1994.
    [37]
    L. Chen, Y. Zhou, and X. Zhang, “Guaranteed cost control for uncertain genetic regulatory networks with interval time-varying delays,” Neurocomputing, vol. 131, pp. 105–112, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.neucom.2013.10.035
    [38]
    A. Merola, C. Cosentino, D. Colacino, and F. Amato, “Optimal control of uncertain nonlinear quadratic systems,” Automatica, vol. 83, pp. 345–350, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.automatica.2017.05.012
    [39]
    S. Li, L. Yang, Z. Gao, and K. Li, “Optimal guaranteed cost cruise control for high-speed train movement,” IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 2879–2887, 2016. doi: 10.1109/TITS.2016.2527827

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(8)  / Tables(4)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (909) PDF downloads(35) Cited by()

    Highlights

    • Guaranteed cost intermittent-switch control is first proposed in energy systems
    • This control method outperforms the guaranteed cost control on energy efficiency
    • This control method can handle the AC system with uncertain time-varying parameters
    • The proposed strategy can improve energy efficiency and comfort levels of AC system

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return