A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 6,  No. 1, 2019

Display Method:
Feature-Based Aggregation and Deep Reinforcement Learning: A Survey and Some New Implementations
Dimitri P. Bertsekas
2019, 6(1): 1-31. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511249
Abstract(7810) HTML (2560) PDF(749)
In this paper we discuss policy iteration methods for approximate solution of a finite-state discounted Markov decision problem, with a focus on feature-based aggregation methods and their connection with deep reinforcement learning schemes. We introduce features of the states of the original problem, and we formulate a smaller "aggregate" Markov decision problem, whose states relate to the features. We discuss properties and possible implementations of this type of aggregation, including a new approach to approximate policy iteration. In this approach the policy improvement operation combines feature-based aggregation with feature construction using deep neural networks or other calculations. We argue that the cost function of a policy may be approximated much more accurately by the nonlinear function of the features provided by aggregation, than by the linear function of the features provided by neural networkbased reinforcement learning, thereby potentially leading to more effective policy improvement.
Communication Scheduling and Remote Estimation With Adversarial Intervention
Xiaobin Gao, Emrah Akyol, Tamer Başar
2019, 6(1): 32-44. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911318
Abstract(1944) HTML (1288) PDF(123)
We study a communication scheduling and remote estimation problem within a worst-case scenario that involves a strategic adversary. Specially, a remote sensing system consisting of a sensor, an encoder and a decoder is configured to observe, transmit, and recover a discrete time stochastic process. At each time step, the sensor makes an observation on the state variable of the stochastic process. The sensor is constrained by the number of transmissions over the time horizon, and thus it needs to decide whether to transmit its observation or not after making each measurement. If the sensor decides to transmit, it sends the observation to the encoder, who then encodes and transmits the observation to the decoder. Otherwise, the sensor and the encoder maintain silence. The decoder is required to generate a real-time estimate on the state variable. The sensor, the encoder, and the decoder collaborate to minimize the sum of the communication cost for the sensor, the encoding cost for the encoder, and the estimation error for the decoder. There is also a jammer interfering with the communication between the encoder and the decoder, by injecting an additive channel noise to the communication channel. The jammer is charged for the jamming power and is rewarded for the estimation error generated by the decoder, and it aims to minimize its net cost. We consider a feedback Stackelberg game with the sensor, the encoder, and the decoder as the composite leader, and the jammer as the follower. Under some technical assumptions, we obtain a feedback Stackelberg solution, which is threshold based for the scheduler, and piecewise affine for the encoder and the decoder. We also generate numerical results to demonstrate the performance of the remote sensing system under the feedback Stackelberg solution.
Distributed Majorization-Minimization for Laplacian Regularized Problems
Jonathan Tuck, David Hallac, Stephen Boyd
2019, 6(1): 45-52. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911321
Abstract(1649) HTML (1051) PDF(80)
We consider the problem of minimizing a block separable convex function (possibly nondifferentiable, and including constraints) plus Laplacian regularization, a problem that arises in applications including model fitting, regularizing stratified models, and multi-period portfolio optimization. We develop a distributed majorization-minimization method for this general problem, and derive a complete, self-contained, general, and simple proof of convergence. Our method is able to scale to very large problems, and we illustrate our approach on two applications, demonstrating its scalability and accuracy.
An Approximate High Gain Observer for Speed-sensorless Estimation of Induction Motors
Yebin Wang, Lei Zhou, Scott A. Bortoff, Akira Satake, Shinichi Furutani
2019, 6(1): 53-63. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511252
Abstract(1563) HTML (1144) PDF(95)
Rotor speed estimation for induction motors is a key problem in speed-sensorless motor drives. This paper performs nonlinear high gain observer design based on the full-order model of the induction motor. Such an effort appears nontrivial due to the fact that the full-model at best admits locally a non-triangular observable form (NTOF), and its analytical representation in the NTOF can not be obtained. This paper proposes an approximate high gain estimation algorithm, which enjoys a constructive design, ease of tuning, and improved speed estimation and tracking performance. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks and Edge Computing for Rapid Acoustic Monitoring
Zhengguo Sheng, Saskia Pfersich, Alice Eldridge, Jianshan Zhou, Daxin Tian, Victor C. M. Leung
2019, 6(1): 64-74. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911324
Abstract(2415) HTML (1453) PDF(60)
Passive acoustic monitoring is emerging as a promising solution to the urgent, global need for new biodiversity assessment methods. The ecological relevance of the soundscape is increasingly recognised, and the affordability of robust hardware for remote audio recording is stimulating international interest in the potential for acoustic methods for biodiversity monitoring. The scale of the data involved requires automated methods, however, the development of acoustic sensor networks capable of sampling the soundscape across time and space and relaying the data to an accessible storage location remains a significant technical challenge, with power management at its core. Recording and transmitting large quantities of audio data is power intensive, hampering long-term deployment in remote, off-grid locations of key ecological interest. Rather than transmitting heavy audio data, in this paper, we propose a low-cost and energy efficient wireless acoustic sensor network integrated with edge computing structure for remote acoustic monitoring and in situ analysis. Recording and computation of acoustic indices are carried out directly on edge devices built from low noise primo condenser microphones and Teensy microcontrollers, using internal FFT hardware support. Resultant indices are transmitted over a ZigBee-based wireless mesh network to a destination server. Benchmark tests of audio quality, indices computation and power consumption demonstrate acoustic equivalence and significant power savings over current solutions.
Event-Triggered Differentially Private Average Consensus for Multi-agent Network
Aijuan Wang, Xiaofeng Liao, Haibo He
2019, 6(1): 75-83. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911327
Abstract(1622) HTML (975) PDF(151)
This paper investigates the differentially private problem of the average consensus for a class of discrete-time multi-agent network systems (MANSs). Based on the MANSs, a new distributed differentially private consensus algorithm (DPCA) is developed. To avoid continuous communication between neighboring agents, a kind of intermittent communication strategy depending on an event-triggered function is established in our DPCA. Based on our algorithm, we carry out the detailed analysis including its convergence, its accuracy, its privacy and the trade-off between the accuracy and the privacy level, respectively. It is found that our algorithm preserves the privacy of initial states of all agents in the whole process of consensus computation. The trade-off motivates us to find the best achievable accuracy of our algorithm under the free parameters and the fixed privacy level. Finally, numerical experiment results testify the validity of our theoretical analysis.
A Real Time Self-Tuning Motion Controller for Mobile Robot Systems
Mohamed Boukens, Abdelkrim Boukabou, Mohammed Chadli
2019, 6(1): 84-96. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511216
Abstract(1729) HTML (975) PDF(81)
This paper proposes an intelligent controller for motion control of robotic systems to obtain high precision tracking without the need for a real-time trial and error method. In addition, a new self-tuning algorithm has been developed based on both the ant colony algorithm and a fuzzy system for real-time tuning of controller parameters. Simulations and experiments using a real robot have been addressed to demonstrate the success of the proposed controller and validate the theoretical analysis. Obtained results confirm that the proposed controller ensures robust performance in the presence of disturbances and parametric uncertainties without the need for adjustment of control law parameters by a trial and error method.
Adaptive Fuzzy Dynamic Surface Control of Flexible-Joint Robot Systems With Input Saturation
Song Ling, Huanqing Wang, Peter X. Liu
2019, 6(1): 97-107. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911330
Abstract(1976) HTML (998) PDF(113)
In this paper, we propose an adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control (DSC) scheme for single-link flexible-joint robotic systems with input saturation. A smooth function is utilized with the mean-value theorem to deal with the difficulties associated with input saturation. An adaptive DSC design with an auxiliary first-order filter is used to solve the "explosion of complexity" problem. It is proved that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded, and the tracking error eventually converges to a small neighborhood around zero. The main advantage of the proposed method is that only one adaptation parameter needs to be updated, which reduces the computational burden significantly. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme and the comparison results show that the improved DSC method can reduce the computational burden by almost two thirds in comparison with the standard DSC method.
Distributed Model Predictive Control for Networked Plant-wide Systems With Neighborhood Cooperation
Ting Bai, Shaoyuan Li, Yi Zheng
2019, 6(1): 108-117. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911333
Abstract(1893) HTML (913) PDF(66)
For large-scale networked plant-wide systems composed by physically (or geographically) divided subsystems, only limited information is available for local controllers on account of region and communication restrictions. Concerning the optimal control problem of such subsystems, a neighbor-based distributed model predictive control (NDMPC) strategy is presented to improve the global system performance. In this scheme, the performance index of local subsystems and that of its neighbors are minimized together in the determination of the optimal control input, which makes the local control decision also beneficial to its neighboring subsystems and further contributes to improving the convergence and control performance of overall system. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved. Moreover, the parameter designing method for distributed synthesis is provided. Finally, the simulation results illustrate the main characteristics and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Geographic, Geometrical and Semantic Reconstruction of Urban Scene from High Resolution Oblique Aerial Images
Xiaofeng Sun, Shuhan Shen, Hainan Cui, Lihua Hu, Zhanyi Hu
2019, 6(1): 118-130. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510673
Abstract(1719) HTML (881) PDF(41)
An effective approach is proposed for 3D urban scene reconstruction in the form of point cloud with semantic labeling. Starting from high resolution oblique aerial images, our approach proceeds through three main stages:geographic reconstruction, geometrical reconstruction and semantic reconstruction. The absolute position and orientation of all the cameras relative to the real world are recovered in the geographic reconstruction stage. Then, in the geometrical reconstruction stage, an improved multi-view stereo matching method is employed to produce 3D dense points with color and normal information by taking into account the prior knowledge of aerial imagery. Finally the point cloud is classified into three classes (building, vegetation, and ground) by a rule-based hierarchical approach in the semantic reconstruction step. Experiments on complex urban scene show that our proposed 3-stage approach could generate reasonable reconstruction result robustly and efficiently. By comparing our final semantic reconstruction result with the manually labeled ground truth, classification accuracies from 86.75% to 93.02% are obtained.
Randomized Latent Factor Model for High-dimensional and Sparse Matrices from Industrial Applications
Mingsheng Shang, Xin Luo, Zhigang Liu, Jia Chen, Ye Yuan, MengChu Zhou
2019, 6(1): 131-141. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511189
Abstract(1615) HTML (897) PDF(68)
Latent factor (LF) models are highly effective in extracting useful knowledge from High-Dimensional and Sparse (HiDS) matrices which are commonly seen in various industrial applications. An LF model usually adopts iterative optimizers, which may consume many iterations to achieve a local optima, resulting in considerable time cost. Hence, determining how to accelerate the training process for LF models has become a significant issue. To address this, this work proposes a randomized latent factor (RLF) model. It incorporates the principle of randomized learning techniques from neural networks into the LF analysis of HiDS matrices, thereby greatly alleviating computational burden. It also extends a standard learning process for randomized neural networks in context of LF analysis to make the resulting model represent an HiDS matrix correctly. Experimental results on three HiDS matrices from industrial applications demonstrate that compared with state-of-the-art LF models, RLF is able to achieve significantly higher computational efficiency and comparable prediction accuracy for missing data. I provides an important alternative approach to LF analysis of HiDS matrices, which is especially desired for industrial applications demanding highly efficient models.
On the Misunderstanding of the Ziegler-Nichols's Formulae Usage
Alexandro Garro Brito
2019, 6(1): 142-147. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911336
Abstract(1528) HTML (894) PDF(63)
In the Ziegler-Nichols's method of reaction curve, the proportional gain should be calculated as an inverse relation of the plant steady-state gain. One of the reasons behind this is to avoid an excessively high loop gain, which can jeopardize many required characteristics of the closed loop. However, many reports, scientific papers and books have been neglecting such gain compensation in the tuning formulae.This brief presents a comprehensive discussion about such uncompensated tuning rules. The main paper finding is that either the stability margin or the disturbance rejection is reduced in this case. A theoretical analysis is performed to obtain the main result. Moreover, a consistent simulation study is also performed to show the impact of the lack of compensation on performance.
Prescribed Performance Control of One-DOF Link Manipulator With Uncertainties and Input Saturation Constraint
Yang Yang, Jie Tan, Dong Yue
2019, 6(1): 148-157. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511099
Abstract(1601) HTML (924) PDF(87)
In this paper, we mainly address the position control problem for one-degree of freedom (DOF) link manipulator despite uncertainties and the input saturation via the backstepping technique, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) as well as predefined tracking performance functions. The extended state observer (ESO) is employed to compensate uncertain dynamics and disturbances, and it does not rely on the accurate model of systems. The tracking differentiator (TD) is utilized to substitute the derivative of the virtual control signals, and the explosion of complexity caused by repeated differentiations of nonlinear functions is removed. The auxiliary system is used to deal with the control input limitation, and the tracking accuracy and speed are improved by predefined tracking performance functions. With the help of the input-to-state stability (ISS) and Lyapunov stability theories, it is proven that the tracking error can be gradually converged into arbitrarily small neighborhood of the origin, and the tracking error is adjusted by suitable choice of control parameters. The simulation results are presented for the verification of the theoretical claims.
Ear Field Adaptive Noise Control for Snoring: An Real-time Experimental Approach
Lichuan Liu, Karunakar Reddy Pottim, Sen M. Kuo
2019, 6(1): 158-166. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911339
Abstract(1702) HTML (898) PDF(32)
In this paper, an active noise control (ANC) system is developed to provide an effective and non-intrusive solution for reducing loud snoring to provide a quiet environment for a snorer's bed partner. An adaptive least mean square (LMS) algorithm optimized for different kinds of snore signals is introduced and theoretically analyzed. Also, a residual noise masking approach is proposed to further reduce the effect of the snore noise without interfering with the LMS algorithm. Computer simulations followed by real-time experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the snore ANC systems based on a pillow setup. For the optimum effect based on the characteristics of human hearing, the performance of the proposed approach is evaluated by using the multi-channel feedforward ANC systems based on the filtered-X least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm. Compared with a traditional headboard setup for snoring noise control, the proposed snore ANC systems optimized for ear field operation yield much higher noise reduction around the ears of the snorer's bed partner.
Stability and Robust Stability of Switched Positive Linear Systems With All Modes Unstable
Shaoxia Feng, Juan Wang, Jun Zhao
2019, 6(1): 167-176. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510718
Abstract(1572) HTML (935) PDF(86)
This paper is concerned with the stability and robust stability of switched positive linear systems (SPLSs) whose subsystems are all unstable. By means of the mode-dependent dwell time approach and a class of discretized co-positive Lyapunov functions, some stability conditions of switched positive linear systems with all modes unstable are derived in both the continuous-time and the discrete-time cases, respectively. The copositive Lyapunov functions constructed in this paper are timevarying during the dwell time and time-invariant afterwards. In addition, the above approach is extended to the switched interval positive systems. A numerical example is proposed to illustrate our approach.
An Implementation of Haar Wavelet Based Method for Numerical Treatment of Time-fractional Schrodinger and Coupled Schrödinger Systems
Najeeb Alam Khan, Tooba Hameed
2019, 6(1): 177-187. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510193
Abstract(1609) HTML (898) PDF(34)
The objective of this paper is to solve the timefractional Schrödinger and coupled Schrödinger differential equations (TFSE) with appropriate initial conditions by using the Haar wavelet approximation. For the most part, this endeavor is made to enlarge the pertinence of the Haar wavelet method to solve a coupled system of time-fractional partial differential equations. As a general rule, piecewise constant approximation of a function at different resolutions is presentational characteristic of Haar wavelet method through which it converts the differential equation into the Sylvester equation that can be further simplified easily. Study of the TFSE is theoretical and experimental research and it also helps in the development of automation science, physics, and engineering as well. Illustratively, several test problems are discussed to draw an effective conclusion, supported by the graphical and tabulated results of included examples, to reveal the proficiency and adaptability of the method.
Optimal Control for a Class of Complex Singular System Based on Adaptive Dynamic Programming
Zhan Shi, Zhanshan Wang
2019, 6(1): 188-197. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911342
Abstract(1802) HTML (900) PDF(126)
This paper presents a new design approach to achieve decentralized optimal control of high-dimension complex singular systems with dynamic uncertainties. Based on robust adaptive dynamic programming (robust ADP) method, controllers for solving the singular systems optimal control problem are designed. The proposed algorithm can work well when the system model is not exactly known but the input and output data can be measured. The policy iteration of each controller only uses their own states and input information for learning, and do not need to know the whole system dynamics. Simulation results on the New England 10-machine 39-bus test system show the effectiveness of the designed controller.
Dynamic Balance Control Based on an Adaptive Gain-scheduled Backstepping Scheme for Power-line Inspection Robots
Songyi Dian, Lin Chen, Son Hoang, Ming Pu, Junyong Liu
2019, 6(1): 198-208. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510721
Abstract(1770) HTML (878) PDF(35)
This paper presents an adaptive gain-scheduled backstepping control (AGSBC) scheme for the balance control of an underactuated mechanical power-line inspection (PLI) robotic system with two degrees of freedom and a single control input. First, a nonlinear dynamic model of the balance adjustment process of the PLI robot is constructed, and then the model is linearized at a nominal equilibrium point to overcome the computational infeasibility of the conventional backstepping technique. Second, to solve generalized stabilization control issue for underactuated systems with multiple equilibrium points, an equilibrium manifold linearized model is developed using a scheduling variable, and then a gain-scheduled backstepping control (GSBC) scheme for expanding the operational area of the controlled system is constructed. Finally, an adaptive mechanism is proposed to counteract the impact of external disturbances. The robust stability of the closed-loop system is ensured by Lyapunov theorem. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and high performance of the proposed scheme compared with other control schemes.
Template-Based Gait Authentication Through Bayesian Thresholding
Ebenezer R. H. P. Isaac, Susan Elias, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, K.S. Easwarakumar
2019, 6(1): 209-219. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911345
Abstract(1525) HTML (860) PDF(25)
While gait recognition is the mapping of a gait sequence to an identity known to the system, gait authentication refers to the problem of identifying whether a given gait sequence belongs to the claimed identity. A typical gait authentication system starts with a feature representation such as a gait template, then proceeds to extract its features, and a transformation is ultimately applied to obtain a discriminant feature set. Almost every authentication approach in literature favours the use of Euclidean distance as a threshold to mark the boundary between a legitimate subject and an impostor. This article proposes a method that uses the posterior probability of a Bayes' classifier in place of the Euclidean distance. The proposed framework is applied to template-based gait feature representations and is evaluated using the standard CASIA-B gait database. Our study experimentally demonstrates that the Bayesian posterior probability performs significantly better than the de facto Euclidean distance approach and the cosine distance which is established in research to be the current state of the art.
A Fractal Dimension Based Framework for Night Vision Fusion
Gaurav Bhatnagar, Q. M. Jonathan Wu
2019, 6(1): 220-227. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511102
Abstract(1658) HTML (836) PDF(68)
In this paper, a novel fusion framework is proposed for night-vision applications such as pedestrian recognition, vehicle navigation and surveillance. The underlying concept is to combine low-light visible and infrared imagery into a single output to enhance visual perception. The proposed framework is computationally simple since it is only realized in the spatial domain. The core idea is to obtain an initial fused image by averaging all the source images. The initial fused image is then enhanced by selecting the most salient features guided from the root mean square error (RMSE) and fractal dimension of the visual and infrared images to obtain the final fused image. Extensive experiments on different scene imaginary demonstrate that it is consistently superior to the conventional image fusion methods in terms of visual and quantitative evaluations.
Robust Finite-time Synchronization of Non-identical Fractional-order Hyperchaotic Systems and Its Application in Secure Communication
Hadi Delavari, Milad Mohadeszadeh
2019, 6(1): 228-235. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510145
Abstract(1492) HTML (961) PDF(79)
This paper proposes a novel adaptive sliding mode control (SMC) method for synchronization of non-identical fractional-order (FO) chaotic and hyper-chaotic systems. Under the existence of system uncertainties and external disturbances, finite-time synchronization between two FO chaotic and hyperchaotic systems is achieved by introducing a novel adaptive sliding mode controller (ASMC). Here in this paper, a fractional sliding surface is proposed. A stability criterion for FO nonlinear dynamic systems is introduced. Sufficient conditions to guarantee stable synchronization are given in the sense of the Lyapunov stability theorem. To tackle the uncertainties and external disturbances, appropriate adaptation laws are introduced. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used for estimating the controller parameters. Finally, finite-time synchronization of the FO chaotic and hyper-chaotic systems is applied to secure communication.
Parallel Planning: A New Motion Planning Framework for Autonomous Driving
Long Chen, Xuemin Hu, Wei Tian, Hong Wang, Dongpu Cao, Fei-Yue Wang
2019, 6(1): 236-246. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511186
Abstract(2323) HTML (915) PDF(144)
Motion planning is one of the most significant technologies for autonomous driving. To make motion planning models able to learn from the environment and to deal with emergency situations, a new motion planning framework called as "parallel planning" is proposed in this paper. In order to generate sufficient and various training samples, artificial traffic scenes are firstly constructed based on the knowledge from the reality. A deep planning model which combines a convolutional neural network (CNN) with the Long Short-Term Memory module (LSTM) is developed to make planning decisions in an end-toend mode. This model can learn from both real and artificial traffic scenes and imitate the driving style of human drivers. Moreover, a parallel deep reinforcement learning approach is also presented to improve the robustness of planning model and reduce the error rate. To handle emergency situations, a hybrid generative model including a variational auto-encoder (VAE) and a generative adversarial network (GAN) is utilized to learn from virtual emergencies generated in artificial traffic scenes. While an autonomous vehicle is moving, the hybrid generative model generates multiple video clips in parallel, which correspond to different potential emergency scenarios. Simultaneously, the deep planning model makes planning decisions for both virtual and current real scenes. The final planning decision is determined by analysis of real observations. Leveraging the parallel planning approach, the planner is able to make rational decisions without heavy calculation burden when an emergency occurs.
Parameter Optimization of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks Based on PSO and BBBC Methods
Jiajun Wang, Tufan Kumbasar
2019, 6(1): 247-257. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911348
Abstract(1562) HTML (517) PDF(103)
Interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks (IT2FNNs) can be seen as the hybridization of interval type-2 fuzzy systems (IT2FSs) and neural networks (NNs). Thus, they naturally inherit the merits of both IT2FSs and NNs. Although IT2FNNs have more advantages in processing uncertain, incomplete, or imprecise information compared to their type-1 counterparts, a large number of parameters need to be tuned in the IT2FNNs, which increases the difficulties of their design. In this paper, big bang-big crunch (BBBC) optimization and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied in the parameter optimization for Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type IT2FNNs. The employment of the BBBC and PSO strategies can eliminate the need of backpropagation computation. The computing problem is converted to a simple feed-forward IT2FNNs learning. The adoption of the BBBC or the PSO will not only simplify the design of the IT2FNNs, but will also increase identification accuracy when compared with present methods. The proposed optimization based strategies are tested with three types of interval type-2 fuzzy membership functions (IT2FMFs) and deployed on three typical identification models. Simulation results certify the effectiveness of the proposed parameter optimization methods for the IT2FNNs.
Economical Optimization of Grid Power Factor Using Predictive Data
Chaojiong Huang, Jason Gu, Haiying Liu, Yuansheng Lu, Jun Luo
2019, 6(1): 258-267. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510691
Abstract(1124) HTML (505) PDF(29)
We present an electrical grid optimization method for economical benefit. After simplifying an IEEE feeder diagram, we build a compact smart grid system including a photovoltaic-inverter system, a shunt capacitor, an on-load tapchanger (OLTC) and transmission lines. The system power factor (PF) regulation and reactive power dispatching are indispensable to improve power quality. Our control method uses predictive weather and load data to decide engaging or tripping the shunt capacitor, or reactive power injection by the photovoltaic-inverter system, ultimately to keep the system PF in a good range. From the perspective of economics, the economical model is considered as a decision maker in our predictive data control method. Capacitor-only control strategy is a common photovoltaic (PV) regulation method, which is treated as a baseline case. Simulations with GridLAB-D on profiled loads and residential loads have been carried out. The comparison results with baseline control strategy and our predictive data control method show the appreciable economical benefit of our method.
Robust Fractional-Order Proportional-Integral Observer for Synchronization of Chaotic Fractional-Order Systems
Ibrahima N'Doye, Khaled Nabil Salama, Taous-Meriem Laleg-Kirati
2019, 6(1): 268-277. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510874
Abstract(1178) HTML (524) PDF(63)
In this paper, we propose a robust fractional-order proportional-integral (FOPI) observer for the synchronization of nonlinear fractional-order chaotic systems. The convergence of the observer is proved, and sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) approach by using an indirect Lyapunov method. The proposed FOPI observer is robust against Lipschitz additive nonlinear uncertainty. It is also compared to the fractional-order proportional (FOP) observer and its performance is illustrated through simulations done on the fractional-order chaotic Lorenz system.
Neural Network Based Adaptive Tracking Control for a Class of Pure Feedback Nonlinear Systems With Input Saturation
Nassira Zerari, Mohamed Chemachema, Najib Essounbouli
2019, 6(1): 278-290. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511255
Abstract(1241) HTML (866) PDF(70)
In this paper, an adaptive neural networks (NNs) tracking controller is proposed for a class of single-input/singleoutput (SISO) non-affine pure-feedback non-linear systems with input saturation. In the proposed approach, the original input saturated nonlinear system is augmented by a low pass filter. Then, new system states are introduced to implement states transformation of the augmented model. The resulting new model in affine Brunovsky form permits direct and simpler controller design by avoiding back-stepping technique and its complexity growing as done in existing methods in the literature. In controller design of the proposed approach, a state observer, based on the strictly positive real (SPR) theory, is introduced and designed to estimate the new system states, and only two neural networks are used to approximate the uncertain nonlinearities and compensate for the saturation nonlinearity of actuator. The proposed approach can not only provide a simple and effective way for construction of the controller in adaptive neural networks control of non-affine systems with input saturation, but also guarantee the tracking performance and the boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system. The stability of the control system is investigated by using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Periodic Motion Planning and Control for Double Rotary Pendulum via Virtual Holonomic Constraints
Zeguo Wang, Leonid B. Freidovich, Honghua Zhang
2019, 6(1): 291-298. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510712
Abstract(849) HTML (475) PDF(29)
Periodic motion planning for an under-actuated system is rather difficult due to differential dynamic constraints imposed by passive dynamics, and it becomes more difficult for a system with higher underactuation degree, that is with a higher difference between the number of degrees of freedom and the number of independent control inputs. However, from another point of view, these constraints also mean some relation between state variables and could be used in the motion planning.We consider a double rotary pendulum, which has an underactuation degree 2. A novel periodic motion planning is presented based on an optimization search. A necessary condition for existence of the whole periodic trajectory is given because of the higher underactuation degree of the system. Moreover this condition is given to make virtual holonomic constraint (VHC) based control design feasible. Therefore, an initial guess for the optimization of planning a feasible periodic motion is based on this necessary condition. Then, VHCs are used for the system transformation and transverse linearization is used to design a static state feedback controller with periodic matrix function gain. The controller gain is found through another optimization procedure. The effectiveness of initial guess and performance of the closed-loop system are illustrated through numerical simulations.
The Multi-scale Method for Solving Nonlinear Time Space Fractional Partial Differential Equations
Hossein Aminikhah, Mahdieh Tahmasebi, Mahmoud Mohammadi Roozbahani
2019, 6(1): 299-306. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510058
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In this paper, we present a new algorithm to solve a kind of nonlinear time space-fractional partial differential equations on a finite domain. The method is based on B-spline wavelets approximations, some of these functions are reshaped to satisfy on boundary conditions exactly. The Adams fractional method is used to reduce the problem to a system of equations. By multiscale method this system is divided into some smaller systems which have less computations. We get an approximated solution which is more accurate on some subdomains by combining the solutions of these systems. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of our proposed technique, also the stability of the method is discussed.
A Kind of Lean Approach for Removing Wastes From Non-Manufacturing Process With Various Facilities
Guangyu Xiong, Xiuqin Shang, Gang Xiong, Timo R. Nyberg
2019, 6(1): 307-315. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911351
Abstract(1021) HTML (482) PDF(35)
It is important to identify and remove the wastes not only from manufacturing process, but also from nonmanufacturing process. In the last several decades, significant research achievements and practice benefits have been achieved about removing wastes from manufacturing process. Since the 1990s, some researchers and lean practitioners have paid more attention to removing waste from non-manufacturing process. Based on the authors' research work and industrial practice, the paper introduces a kind of lean approach for removing waste from non-manufacturing process. In its case study, the order handling process in a value chain is described with respect to a factory and its downstream distribution centers (DCs). The paper proposes a lean approach solution for creating the improved order handling process, and analyze how great improvements in performance can be achieved. As a result, the significant achievement has created a win-win scenario for both the nonmanufacturing process in a factory and non-manufacturing facilities (like DCs) across the value chain. It demonstrates that improvements have been made by removing waste from the non-manufacturing process that takes place within a factory as well as with external participants through the whole value chain. Likewise, the proposed lean approach has helped the case companies to achieve greater levels of efficiency and more benefits. Finally, some conclusions are drawn.
Disturbance Observer Based Speed Control of PMSM Using Fractional Order PI Controller
Aishwarya Apte, Ujjwala Thakar, Vrunda Joshi
2019, 6(1): 316-326. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911354
Abstract(1249) HTML (507) PDF(137)
In this paper, fractional order PI (FOPI) control is developed for speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Designing the parameters for FOPI controller is a challenging task, especially for nonlinear systems like PMSM. All three PI controllers in the conventional vector controlled speed drive are replaced by FOPI controllers. Design of these FOPI controllers is based on the locally linearized model of PMSM around an operating point. This operating point changes with the load torque. The novelty of the work reported here is in use of Non Linear Disturbance Observer (NLDO) to estimate load torque to obtain this new operating point. All three FOPI controllers are then designed adaptively using this new operating point. The scheme is tested on simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK and results are presented.
A Study on Development of a Hybrid Aerial/Terrestrial Robot System for Avoiding Ground Obstacles by Flight
Chinthaka Premachandra, Masahiro Otsuka, Ryo Gohara, Takao Ninomiya, Kiyotaka Kato
2019, 6(1): 327-336. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511258
Abstract(1305) HTML (554) PDF(69)
To date, many studies related to robots have been performed around the world. Many of these studies have assumed operation at locations where entry is difficult, such as disaster sites, and have focused on various terrestrial robots, such as snake-like, humanoid, spider-type, and wheeled units. Another area of active research in recent years has been aerial robots with small helicopters for operation indoors and outdoors. However, less research has been performed on robots that operate both on the ground and in the air. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a hybrid aerial/terrestrial robot system. The proposed robot system was developed by equipping a quadcopter with a mechanism for ground movement. It does not use power dedicated to ground movement, and instead uses the flight mechanism of the quadcopter to achieve ground movement as well. Furthermore, we addressed the issue of obstacle avoidance as part of studies on autonomous control. Thus, we found that autonomous control of ground movement and flight was possible for the hybrid aerial/terrestrial robot system, as was autonomous obstacle avoidance by flight when an obstacle appeared during ground movement.