A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 3,  No. 4, 2016

Steps toward Parallel Intelligence
Fei-Yue Wang, Xiao Wang, Lingxi Li, Li Li
2016, 3(4): 345-348.
Abstract(1213) HTML (826) PDF(29)
The origin of artificial intelligence is investigated, based on which the concepts of hybrid intelligence and parallel intelligence are presented. The paradigm shift in Intelligence indicates the "new normal" of cyber-social-physical systems (CPSS), in which the system behaviors are guided by Merton's Laws. Thus, the ACP-based parallel intelligence consisting of Artificial societies, Computational experiments and Parallel execution are introduced to bridge the big modeling gap in CPSS.
Hybrid Petri Nets for Modeling and Analysis of Microgrid Systems
Xiaoyu Lu, Mengchu Zhou, Ahmed Chiheb Ammari, Jingchu Ji
2016, 3(4): 349-356.
Abstract(1214) HTML (791) PDF(20)
Hybrid Petri nets (HPNs) are widely used to describe and analyze various industrial hybrid systems that have both discrete-event and continuous discrete-time behaviors. Recently, many researchers attempt to utilize them to characterize power and energy systems. This work proposes to adopt an HPN to model and analyze a microgrid that consists of green energy sources. A reachability graph for such a model is generated and used to analyze the system properties.
Distributed Optimal Co-multi-microgrids Energy Management for Energy Internet
Bonan Huang, Yushuai Li, Huaguang Zhang, Qiuye Sun
2016, 3(4): 357-364.
Abstract(1163) HTML (812) PDF(32)
Unlike conventional power systems, the upcoming energy internet (EI) emphasizes comprehensive utilization of energy in the whole power system by coordinating multi-microgrids, which also brings new challenge for the energy management. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel consensus-based distributed approach based on multi-agent framework to solve the energy management problem of the energy internet, which only requires local information exchange among neighboring agents. Correspondingly, two consensus algorithms are presented, one of which drives the incremental cost of each distributed generator (DG) converge to the state of the leader agent-energy router, and the other one is used to estimate the global power mismatch, which is a first-order average consensus algorithm modified by a correction term. In addition, in order to meet the supply-demand balance, an effective control strategy for the energy router is proposed to accurately calculate the power exchange between the microgrid and the main grid. Finally, simulation results within a 7-bus test system are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Modeling Passengers Boarding in Aircraft Using Cellular Automata
Themistoklis Giitsidis, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis
2016, 3(4): 365-384.
Abstract(1229) HTML (822) PDF(29)
Aircraft are profitable to their owners as long as they are in the air transporting passengers to their destinations; therefore it is vital to minimize as much as possible their preparation time on the ground. In this paper we simulate different boarding strategies with the help of a model based on cellular automata parallel computational tool, attempting to find the most efficient way to deliver each passenger to her/his assigned seat. Two seat arrangements are used, a small one based on Airbus A320/Boeing 737 and a larger one based on Airbus A380/Boeing 777-300. A wide variety of parameters, including time delay for luggage storing, the frequency by which the passengers enter the plane, different walking speeds of passengers depending on sex, age and height, and the possibility of walking past their seat, are simulated in order to achieve realistic results, as well as monitor their effects on boarding time. The simulation results indicate that the boarding time can be significantly reduced by the simple grouping and prioritizing of passengers. In accordance with previous papers and the examined strategies, the outside-in and reverse pyramid boarding methods outperform all the others for both the small and large airplane seat layout. In the latter, the examined strategies are introduced for first time in an analogous way to the initial small seat arrangement of Airbus A320/Boeing 737 aircraft family. Moreover, since in real world scenarios, the compliance of all the passengers to the suggested group division and boarding strategy cannot be guaranteed, further simulations were conducted. It is clear that as the number of passengers disregarding the priority of the boarding groups increases, the time needed for the boarding to complete tends towards that of the random boarding strategy, thus minimizing the possible advantages gained by the proposed boarding strategies.
Initiative Optimization Operation Strategy and Multi-objective Energy Management Method for Combined Cooling Heating and Power
Feng Zhao, Chenghui Zhang, Bo Sun
2016, 3(4): 385-393.
Abstract(1160) HTML (815) PDF(13)
This paper proposed an initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) with storage systems. Initially, the initiative optimization operation strategy of CCHP system in the cooling season, the heating season and the transition season was formulated. The energy management of CCHP system was optimized by the multi-objective optimization model with maximum daily energy efficiency, minimum daily carbon emissions and minimum daily operation cost based on the proposed initiative optimization operation strategy. Furthermore, the pareto optimal solution set was solved by using the niche particle swarm multi-objective optimization algorithm. Ultimately, the most satisfactory energy management scheme was obtained by using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS) method. A case study of CCHP system used in a hospital in the north of China validated the effectiveness of this method. The results showed that the satisfactory energy management scheme of CCHP system was obtained based on this initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method. The CCHP system has achieved better energy efficiency, environmental protection and economic benefits.
On Frequency Sensitivity and Mode Orthogonality of Flexible Robotic Manipulators
Wang Fei-Yue, Gao Yanqing
2016, 3(4): 394-397.
Abstract(1123) HTML (792) PDF(8)
This paper presents sensitivity analysis of vibration frequencies of flexible manipulators with respect to variations of systems parameters such as rotational inertia of hub, and mass, moment, and side of tip load. Both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko dynamical models of flexible manipulators are discussed. By using variational method, sensitivity indices are obtained with explicit expressions for measuring the sensitivity of frequencies. Based on variational formulations, a novel method for deriving the orthogonal relations among vibration modal shape functions of flexible manipulators is introduced. With this method, the orthogonal relations can be derived easily without invoking the tedious process of differentiation and integration by part, as commonly used in their derivation.
Guest Editorial for Special Issue on Fractional Order Systems and Controls
YangQuan Chen, Dingyü Xue, Antonio Visioli
2016, 3(4): 398-399.
Abstract(1061) HTML (810) PDF(6)
Controllability of Fractional Order Stochastic Differential Inclusions with Fractional Brownian Motion in Finite Dimensional Space
Sathiyaraj T., Balasubramaniam P.
2016, 3(4): 400-410.
Abstract(1167) HTML (795) PDF(17)
In this paper, sufficient conditions are formulated for controllability of fractional order stochastic differential inclusions with fractional Brownian motion (fBm) via fixed point theorems, namely the Bohnenblust-Karlin fixed point theorem for the convex case and the Covitz-Nadler fixed point theorem for the nonconvex case. The controllability Grammian matrix is defined by using Mittag-Leffler matrix function. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained theoretical results.
A Note on Robust Stability Analysis of Fractional Order Interval Systems by Minimum Argument Vertex and Edge Polynomials
Baris Baykant Alagoz
2016, 3(4): 411-421.
Abstract(1232) HTML (817) PDF(11)
By using power mapping (s=vm), stability analysis of fractional order polynomials was simplified to the stability analysis of expanded degree integer order polynomials in the first Riemann sheet. However, more investigation is needed for revealing properties of power mapping and demonstration of conformity of Hurwitz stability under power mapping of fractional order characteristic polynomials. Contributions of this study have two folds:Firstly, this paper demonstrates conservation of root argument and magnitude relations under power mapping of characteristic polynomials and thus substantiates validity of Hurwitz stability under power mapping of fractional order characteristic polynomials. This also ensures implications of edge theorem for fractional order interval systems. Secondly, in control engineering point of view, numerical robust stability analysis approaches based on the consideration of minimum argument roots of edge and vertex polynomials are presented. For the computer-aided design of fractional order interval control systems, the minimum argument root principle is applied for a finite set of edge and vertex polynomials, which are sampled from parametric uncertainty box. Several illustrative examples are presented to discuss effectiveness of these approaches.
Criteria for Response Monotonicity Preserving in Approximation of Fractional Order Systems
Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei
2016, 3(4): 422-429.
Abstract(1123) HTML (823) PDF(10)
In approximation of fractional order systems, a significant objective is to preserve the important properties of the original system. The monotonicity of time/frequency responses is one of these properties whose preservation is of great importance in approximation process. Considering this importance, the issues of monotonicity preservation of the step response and monotonicity preservation of the magnitude-frequency response are independently investigated in this paper. In these investigations, some conditions on approximating filters of fractional operators are found to guarantee the preservation of step/magnitude-frequency response monotonicity in approximation process. These conditions are also simplified in some special cases. In addition, numerical simulation results are presented to show the usefulness of the obtained conditions.
Fractional-order Generalized Principle of Self-support (FOGPSS) in Control System Design
Hua Chen, Yang Quan Chen
2016, 3(4): 430-441.
Abstract(1199) HTML (820) PDF(9)
This paper reviews research that studies the principle of self-support (PSS) in some control systems and proposes a fractional-order generalized PSS framework for the first time. The existing PSS approach focuses on practical tracking problem of integer-order systems including robotic dynamics, high precision linear motor system, multi-axis high precision positioning system with unmeasurable variables, imprecise sensor information, uncertain parameters and external disturbances. More generally, by formulating the fractional PSS concept as a new generalized framework, we will focus on the possible fields of the fractional-order control problems such as practical tracking, -tracking, etc. of robot systems, multiple mobile agents, discrete dynamical systems, time delay systems and other uncertain nonlinear systems. Finally, the practical tracking of a first-order uncertain model of automobile is considered as a simple example to demonstrate the efficiency of the fractional-order generalized principle of self-support (FOGPSS) control strategy.
Study on Four Disturbance Observers for FO-LTI Systems
Songsong Cheng, Shengguo Wang, Yiheng Wei, Qing Liang, Yong Wang
2016, 3(4): 442-450.
Abstract(1211) HTML (799) PDF(12)
This paper addresses the problem of designing disturbance observer for fractional order linear time invariant (FO-LTI) systems, where the disturbance includes time series expansion disturbance and sinusoidal disturbance. On one hand, the reduced order extended state observer (ROESO) and reduced order cascade extended state observer (ROCESO) are proposed for the case that the system state can be measured directly. On the other hand, the extended state observer (ESO) and the cascade extended state observer (CESO) are presented for another case when the system state cannot be measured directly. It is shown that combination of ROCESO and CESO can achieve a highly effective observation result. In addition, the way how to tune observer parameters to ensure the stability of the observers and reduce the observation error is presented in this paper. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Set-point Filter Design for a Two-degree-of-freedom Fractional Control System
Fabrizio Padula, Visioli Antonio
2016, 3(4): 451-462.
Abstract(1132) HTML (803) PDF(7)
This paper focuses on a new approach to design (possibly fractional) set-point filters for fractional control systems. After designing a smooth and monotonic desired output signal, the necessary command signal is obtained via fractional input-output inversion. Then, a set-point filter is determined based on the synthesized command signal. The filter is computed by minimizing the 2-norm of the difference between the command signal and the filter step response. The proposed methodology allows the designer to synthesize both integer and fractional setpoint filters. The pros and cons of both solutions are discussed in details. This approach is suitable for the design of two degreeof-freedom controllers capable to make the set-point tracking performance almost independent from the feedback part of the controller. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Identification and PID Control for a Class of Delay Fractional-order Systems
Zhuoyun Nie, Qingguo Wang, Ruijuan Liu, Yonghong Lan
2016, 3(4): 463-476.
Abstract(1315) HTML (809) PDF(29)
In this paper, a new model identification method is developed for a class of delay fractional-order system based on the process step response. Four characteristic functions are defined to characterize the features of the normalized fractionalorder model. Based on the time scaling technology, two identification schemes are proposed for parameters' estimation. The scheme one utilizes three exact points on the step response of the process to calculate model parameters directly. The other scheme employs optimal searching method to adjust the fractional order for the best model identification. The proposed two identification schemes are both applicable to any stable complex process, such as higher-order, under-damped/over-damped, and minimum-phase/nonminimum-phase processes. Furthermore, an optimal PID tuning method is proposed for the delay fractionalorder systems. The requirements on the stability margins and the negative feedback are cast as real part constraints (RPC) and imaginary part constraints (IPC). The constraints are implemented by trigonometric inequalities on the phase variable, and the optimal PID controller is obtained by the minimization of the integral of time absolute error (ITAE) index. Identification and control of a Titanium billet heating process is given for the illustration.
Robust Output Feedback Control for Fractional Order Nonlinear Systems with Time-varying Delays
Changchun Hua, Tong Zhang, Yafeng Li, Xinping Guan
2016, 3(4): 477-482.
Abstract(1147) HTML (811) PDF(23)
Robust controller design problem is investigated for a class of fractional order nonlinear systems with time varying delays. Firstly, a reduced-order observer is designed. Then, an output feedback controller is designed. Both the designed observer and controller are independent of time delays. By choosing appropriate Lyapunov functions, we prove the designed controller can render the fractional order system asymptotically stable. A simulation example is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
State Feedback Control for a Class of Fractional Order Nonlinear Systems
Yige Zhao, Yuzhen Wang, Haitao Li
2016, 3(4): 483-488.
Abstract(1243) HTML (826) PDF(28)
Using the Lyapunov function method, this paper investigates the design of state feedback stabilization controllers for fractional order nonlinear systems in triangular form, and presents a number of new results. First, some new properties of Caputo fractional derivative are presented, and a sufficient condition of asymptotical stability for fractional order nonlinear systems is obtained based on the new properties. Then, by introducing appropriate transformations of coordinates, the problem of controller design is converted into the problem of finding some parameters, which can be certainly obtained by solving the Lyapunov equation and relevant matrix inequalities. Finally, based on the Lyapunov function method, state feedback stabilization controllers making the closed-loop system asymptotically stable are explicitly constructed. A simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure.