A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 4,  No. 1, 2017

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PDP: Parallel Dynamic Programming
Fei-Yue Wang, Jie Zhang, Qinglai Wei, Xinhu Zheng, Li Li
2017, 4(1): 1-5.
Abstract(1169) HTML (816) PDF(36)

Deep reinforcement learning is a focus research area in artificial intelligence. The principle of optimality in dynamic programming is a key to the success of reinforcement learning methods. The principle of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is first presented instead of direct dynamic programming (DP), and the inherent relationship between ADP and deep reinforcement learning is developed. Next, analytics intelligence, as the necessary requirement, for the real reinforcement learning, is discussed. Finally, the principle of the parallel dynamic programming, which integrates dynamic programming and analytics intelligence, is presented as the future computational intelligence.

Toward Cloud Computing QoS Architecture: Analysis of Cloud Systems and Cloud Services
M.H. Ghahramani, MengChu Zhou, Chi Tin Hon
2017, 4(1): 6-18.
Abstract(1641) HTML (880) PDF(38)
Cloud can be defined as a new computing paradigm that provides scalable, on-demand, and virtualized resources for users. In this style of computing, users can access a shared pool of computing resources which are provisioned with minimal management efforts of users. Yet there are some obstacles and concerns about the use of clouds. Guaranteeing quality of service (QoS) by service providers can be regarded as one of the main concerns for companies tending to use it. Service provisioning in clouds is based on service level agreements representing a contract negotiated between users and providers. According to this contract, if a provider cannot satisfy its agreed application requirements, it should pay penalties as compensation. In this paper, we intend to carry out a comprehensive survey on the models proposed in literature with respect to the implementation principles to address the QoS guarantee issue.
Social Media Based Transportation Research: the State of the Work and the Networking
Yisheng Lv, Yuanyuan Chen, Xiqiao Zhang, Yanjie Duan, Naiqiang Li
2017, 4(1): 19-26.
Abstract(1613) HTML (796) PDF(73)
Recently, there has been an increased interest in the use of social media data as important traffic information sources. In this paper, we review social media based transportation research with social network analysis methods.We summarize main research topics in this field, and report collaboration patterns at levels of researchers, institutions, and countries, respectively. Finally, some future research directions are identified.
Review on Cyber-physical Systems
Yang Liu, Yu Peng, Bailing Wang, Sirui Yao, Zihe Liu
2017, 4(1): 27-40.
Abstract(2704) HTML (1108) PDF(153)
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are complex systems with organic integration and in-depth collaboration of computation, communications and control (3C) technology. Subject to the theory and technology of existing network systems and physical systems, the development of CPS is facing enormous challenges. This paper first introduces the concept and characteristics of CPS and analyzes the present situation of CPS researches. Then the development of CPS is discussed from perspectives of system model, information processing technology and software design. At last it analyzes the main obstacles and key researches in developing CPS.
Determination of Polynomial Degree in the Regression of Drug Combinations
Boqian Wang, Xianting Ding, Fei-Yue Wang
2017, 4(1): 41-47.
Abstract(1147) HTML (815) PDF(10)
Studies on drug combinations are becoming more and more popular in the past few decades, with the development of computer and algorithms. One of the most common methods in optimizing drug combinations is regression of a polynomial model based on certain number of experimental observations. In this paper, we study how to determine the degree of polynomials in different circumstances of drug combination optimization. Using cross-validation, we have found that in most cases, a high degree results in failures of accurate prediction, named overfitting. An anti-noise test has also revealed that polynomial model with high degree tends to be less resistant to random errors in the observations.
Observer-based Adaptive Optimal Control for Unknown Singularly Perturbed Nonlinear Systems With Input Constraints
Zhijun Fu, Wenfang Xie, Subhash Rakheja, Jing Na
2017, 4(1): 48-57.
Abstract(1180) HTML (848) PDF(30)
This paper introduces an observer-based adaptive optimal control method for unknown singularly perturbed nonlinear systems with input constraints. First, a multi-time scales dynamic neural network (MTSDNN) observer with a novel updating law derived from a properly designed Lyapunov function is proposed to estimate the system states. Then, an adaptive learning rule driven by the critic NN weight error is presented for the critic NN, which is used to approximate the optimal cost function. Finally, the optimal control action is calculated by online solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with the MTSDNN observer and critic NN. The stability of the overall closed-loop system consisting of the MTSDNN observer, the critic NN and the optimal control action is proved. The proposed observer-based optimal control approach has an essential advantage that the system dynamics are not needed for implementation, and only the measured input/output data is needed. Moreover, the proposed optimal control design takes the input constraints into consideration and thus can overcome the restriction of actuator saturation. Simulation results are presented to confirm the validity of the investigated approach.
Synthesis of Fractional-order PI Controllers and Fractional-order Filters for Industrial Electrical Drives
Paolo Lino, Guido Maione, Silvio Stasi, Fabrizio Padula, Antonio Visioli
2017, 4(1): 58-69.
Abstract(1187) HTML (822) PDF(36)
This paper introduces an electrical drives control architecture combining a fractional-order controller and a setpoint pre-filter. The former is based on a fractional-order proportional-integral (PI) unit, with a non-integer order integral action, while the latter can be of integer or non-integer type. To satisfy robustness and dynamic performance specifications, the feedback controller is designed by a loop-shaping technique in the frequency domain. In particular, optimality of the feedback system is pursued to achieve input-output tracking. The setpoint pre-filter is designed by a dynamic inversion technique minimizing the difference between the ideal synthesized command signal (i.e., a smooth monotonic response) and the prefilter step response. Experimental tests validate the methodology and compare the performance of the proposed architecture with well-established control schemes that employ the classical PIbased symmetrical optimum method with a smoothing pre-filter.
Maximum Power Point Tracking With Fractional Order High Pass Filter for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Jianxin Liu, Tiebiao Zhao, YangQuan Chen
2017, 4(1): 70-79.
Abstract(1206) HTML (809) PDF(15)
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is widely recognized as a potentially renewable and green energy source based on hydrogen. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is one of the most important working conditions to be considered. In order to improve the performance such as convergence and robustness under disturbance and uncertainty, a fractional order high pass filter (FOHPF) is applied for the MPPT controller design based on the traditional extremum seeking control (ESC). The controller is designed with integerorder integrator (IO-I) and low pass filter (IO-LPF) together with fractional order high pass filter (FOHPF), by substituting the normal HPF in the original ESC system. With this FOHPF ESC, better convergence and smoother performance are achieved while maintaining the robust specifications. First, tracking stability is discussed under the commensurate-order condition. Then, simulation results are included to validate the proposed new FOHPF ESC scheme under disturbance. Finally, comparison results between FOHPF ESC and the traditional ESC method are also provided.
Constrained Fractional Variational Problems of Variable Order
Dina Tavares, Ricardo Almeida, Delfim F. M. Torres
2017, 4(1): 80-88. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510331
Abstract(1610) HTML (1051) PDF(321)
Isoperimetric problems consist in minimizing or maximizing a cost functional subject to an integral constraint. In this work, we present two fractional isoperimetric problems where the Lagrangian depends on a combined Caputo derivative of variable fractional order and we present a new variational problem subject to a holonomic constraint. We establish necessary optimality conditions in order to determine the minimizers of the fractional problems. The terminal point in the cost integral, as well as the terminal state, are considered to be free, and we obtain corresponding natural boundary conditions.
Robust Attitude Control for Reusable Launch Vehicles Based on Fractional Calculus and Pigeon-inspired Optimization
Qiang Xue, Haibin Duan
2017, 4(1): 89-97.
Abstract(1158) HTML (835) PDF(14)
In this paper, a robust attitude control system based on fractional order sliding mode control and dynamic inversion approach is presented for the reusable launch vehicle (RLV) during the reentry phase. By introducing the fractional order sliding surface to replace the integer order one, we design robust outer loop controller to compensate the error introduced by inner loop controller designed by dynamic inversion approach. To take the uncertainties of aerodynamic parameters into account, stochastic robustness design approach based on the Monte Carlo simulation and Pigeon-inspired optimization is established to increase the robustness of the controller. Some simulation results are given out which indicate the reliability and effectiveness of the attitude control system.
Numerical Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations by Using Fractional Taylor Basis
Vidhya Saraswathy Krishnasamy, Somayeh Mashayekhi, Mohsen Razzaghi
2017, 4(1): 98-106.
Abstract(1262) HTML (809) PDF(27)
In this paper, a new numerical method for solving fractional differential equations (FDEs) is presented. The method is based upon the fractional Taylor basis approximations. The operational matrix of the fractional integration for the fractional Taylor basis is introduced. This matrix is then utilized to reduce the solution of the fractional differential equations to a system of algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of this technique.
Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm-based Parameter Estimation of Fractional-order Chaotic System with Time Delay
Wenjuan Gu, Yongguang Yu, Wei Hu
2017, 4(1): 107-113.
Abstract(1148) HTML (821) PDF(18)
It is an important issue to estimate parameters of fractional-order chaotic systems in nonlinear science, which has received increasing interest in recent years. In this paper, time delay and fractional order as well as system's parameters are concerned by treating the time delay and fractional order as additional parameters. The parameter estimation is converted into a multi-dimensional optimization problem. A new scheme based on artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Numerical experiments are performed on two typical time-delay fractional-order chaotic systems to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Stability Analysis, Chaos Control of Fractional Order Vallis and El-Nino Systems and Their Synchronization
Subir Das, Vijay K Yadav
2017, 4(1): 114-124.
Abstract(1110) HTML (814) PDF(19)
In this article the authors have studied the stability analysis and chaos control of the fractional order Vallis and El-Nino systems. The chaos control of these systems is studied using nonlinear control method with the help of a new lemma for Caputo derivative and Lyapunov stability theory. The synchronization between the systems for different fractional order cases and numerical simulation through graphical plots for different particular cases clearly exhibit that the method is easy to implement and reliable for synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems. The comparison of time of synchronization when the systems pair approaches from standard order to fractional order is the key feature of the article.
Distributed Model Predictive Load Frequency Control of Multi-area Power System with DFIGs
Zhang Yi, Liu Xiangjie, Qu Bin
2017, 4(1): 125-135.
Abstract(1148) HTML (829) PDF(28)
Reliable load frequency control (LFC) is crucial to the operation and design of modern electric power systems. Considering the LFC problem of a four-area interconnected power system with wind turbines, this paper presents a distributed model predictive control (DMPC) based on coordination scheme. The proposed algorithm solves a series of local optimization problems to minimize a performance objective for each control area. The generation rate constraints (GRCs), load disturbance changes, and the wind speed constraints are considered. Furthermore, the DMPC algorithm may reduce the impact of the randomness and intermittence of wind turbine effectively. A performance comparison between the proposed controller with and without the participation of the wind turbines is carried out. Analysis and simulation results show possible improvements on closed-loop performance, and computational burden with the physical constraints.
Secure Consensus Control for Multi-Agent Systems With Attacks and Communication Delays
Yiming Wu, Xiongxiong He
2017, 4(1): 136-142.
Abstract(1126) HTML (805) PDF(23)
This paper addresses the consensus problem for nonlinear multi-agent systems suffering from attacks and communication delays. The network studied in this paper consists of two types of agents, namely, loyal agents and attack agents. The loyal agents update their states based on delayed state information exchanged with their neighbors. Meanwhile, the attack agents can strategically send messages with wrong values, or collude with other attack agents to disrupt the correct operation of the system. We design a novel delay robust secure consensus (DRSC) algorithm according to the neighboring nodes' delayed information. Convergence analysis of the system under the protocol designed is provided by using Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and Barbalat-like argument approach. Finally, an example and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Bad-scenario-set Robust Optimization Framework With Two Objectives for Uncertain Scheduling Systems
Bing Wang, Xuedong Xia, Hexia Meng, Tao Li
2017, 4(1): 143-153.
Abstract(1050) HTML (796) PDF(17)
This paper proposes a robust optimization framework generally for scheduling systems subject to uncertain input data, which is described by discrete scenarios. The goal of robust optimization is to hedge against the risk of system performance degradation on a set of bad scenarios while maintaining an excellent expected system performance. The robustness is evaluated by a penalty function on the bad-scenario set. The bad-scenario set is identified for current solution by a threshold, which is restricted on a reasonable-value interval. The robust optimization framework is formulated by an optimization problem with two conflicting objectives. One objective is to minimize the reasonable value of threshold, and another is to minimize the measured penalty on the bad-scenario set. An approximate solution framework with two dependent stages is developed to surrogate the biobjective robust optimization problem. The approximation degree of the surrogate framework is analyzed. Finally, the proposed bad-scenario-set robust optimization framework is applied to a scenario job-shop scheduling system. An extensive computational experiment was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and the approximation degree of the framework. The computational results testified that the robust optimization framework can provide multiple selections of robust solutions for the decision maker. The robust scheduling framework studied in this paper can provide a unique paradigm for formulating and solving robust discrete optimization problems.
Adaptive Maneuvering Frequency Method of Current Statistical Model
Wei Sun, Yongjian Yang
2017, 4(1): 154-160.
Abstract(1164) HTML (817) PDF(10)
Current statistical model (CSM) has a good performance in maneuvering target tracking. However, the fixed maneuvering frequency will deteriorate the tracking results, such as a serious dynamic delay, a slowly converging speedy and a limited precision when using Kalman filter (KF) algorithm. In this study, a new current statistical model and a new Kalman filter are proposed to improve the performance of maneuvering target tracking. The new model which employs innovation dominated subjection function to adaptively adjust maneuvering frequency has a better performance in step maneuvering target tracking, while a fluctuant phenomenon appears. As far as this problem is concerned, a new adaptive fading Kalman filter is proposed as well. In the new Kalman filter, the prediction values are amended in time by setting judgment and amendment rules, so that tracking precision and fluctuant phenomenon of the new current statistical model are improved. The results of simulation indicate the effectiveness of the new algorithm and the practical guiding significance.