A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation
Volume 11 Issue 6
Jun.  2024

IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

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Article Contents
Y. Li, X. Wang, Z. He, Z. Wang, K. Cheng, S.  Ding, Y. Fan, X. Li, Y. Niu, S. Xiao, Z. Hao, B. Gao, and  H. Wu,  “Industry-oriented detection method of PCBA defects using semantic segmentation models,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1438–1446, Jun. 2024. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2024.124422
Citation: Y. Li, X. Wang, Z. He, Z. Wang, K. Cheng, S.  Ding, Y. Fan, X. Li, Y. Niu, S. Xiao, Z. Hao, B. Gao, and  H. Wu,  “Industry-oriented detection method of PCBA defects using semantic segmentation models,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1438–1446, Jun. 2024. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2024.124422

Industry-Oriented Detection Method of PCBA Defects Using Semantic Segmentation Models

doi: 10.1109/JAS.2024.124422
Funds:  This work was supported in part by the IoT Intelligent Microsystem Center of Tsinghua University-China Mobile Joint Research Institute
More Information
  • Automated optical inspection (AOI) is a significant process in printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) production lines which aims to detect tiny defects in PCBAs. Existing AOI equipment has several deficiencies including low throughput, large computation cost, high latency, and poor flexibility, which limits the efficiency of online PCBA inspection. In this paper, a novel PCBA defect detection method based on a lightweight deep convolution neural network is proposed. In this method, the semantic segmentation model is combined with a rule-based defect recognition algorithm to build up a defect detection framework. To improve the performance of the model, extensive real PCBA images are collected from production lines as datasets. Some optimization methods have been applied in the model according to production demand and enable integration in lightweight computing devices. Experiment results show that the production line using our method realizes a throughput more than three times higher than traditional methods. Our method can be integrated into a lightweight inference system and promote the flexibility of AOI. The proposed method builds up a general paradigm and excellent example for model design and optimization oriented towards industrial requirements.


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    • This paper proposes a novel defect detection method for complex PCBAs which is geared towards actual production lines. The method uses the CNN model to extract segmentation maps of raw PCBA images and detect tiny defects using visual geometric features, which can successfully detect defects in PCB with different designs
    • A semantic segmentation model combined with computer vision methods is proposed to build up a defect detection framework. Moreover, thanks to the rule-based defect recognition method, there is no need for defects data to be trained, which saves the cost of data collection and enhances the method's generalization capability
    • The proposed method can significantly improve the throughput of the PCBA production line with a lower false-call rate and missing detection rate, which shows a great improvement in production efficiency. By integrating with the edge intelligent system, the power consumption can be reduced by an order of magnitude
    • We design and implement a general paradigm for optimizing the PCBA detection model based on actual production objectives. With the increase of PCBA complexity, this paradigm can also provide us with a guide for adapting the detection model to new production lines
    • A PCBA data set for defect detection is built based on the images obtained in SMT production lines. The data set covers the main defect types in the actual production of PCBA and has been annotated manually


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