A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation
Volume 6 Issue 5
Sep.  2019

IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

  • JCR Impact Factor: 7.847, Top 10% (SCI Q1)
    CiteScore: 13.0, Top 5% (Q1)
    Google Scholar h5-index: 64, TOP 7
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jun Yang, Ximan Wang, Simone Baldi, Satish Singh and Stefano Farì, "A Software-in-the-Loop Implementation of Adaptive Formation Control for Fixed-Wing UAVs," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1230-1239, Sept. 2019. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911702
Citation: Jun Yang, Ximan Wang, Simone Baldi, Satish Singh and Stefano Farì, "A Software-in-the-Loop Implementation of Adaptive Formation Control for Fixed-Wing UAVs," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1230-1239, Sept. 2019. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911702

A Software-in-the-Loop Implementation of Adaptive Formation Control for Fixed-Wing UAVs

doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911702
Funds:  This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (4007019109) (RECON-STRUCT), the Special Guiding Funds for Double First-class (4007019201), and the Joint TU Delft - CSSC Project ‘Multi-agent Coordination with Networked Constraints’ (MULTI-COORD). The first two authors equally contributed to this work
More Information
  • This paper discusses the design and software-in-the-loop implementation of adaptive formation controllers for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with parametric uncertainty in their structure, namely uncertain mass and inertia. In fact, when aiming at autonomous flight, such parameters cannot assumed to be known as they might vary during the mission (e.g. depending on the payload). Modeling and autopilot design for such autonomous fixed-wing UAVs are presented. The modeling is implemented in Matlab, while the autopilot is based on ArduPilot, a popular open-source autopilot suite. Specifically, the ArduPilot functionalities are emulated in Matlab according to the Ardupilot documentation and code, which allows us to perform software-in-the-loop simulations of teams of UAVs embedded with actual autopilot protocols. An overview of realtime path planning, trajectory tracking and formation control resulting from the proposed platform is given. The software-inthe-loop simulations show the capability of achieving different UAV formations while handling uncertain mass and inertia.

     

  • loading
  • [1]
    H. Chao, Y. Cao, and Y. Chen, " Autopilots for small unmanned aerial vehicles: a survey,” International Journal of Control,Automation and Systems, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 36–44, 2010. doi: 10.1007/s12555-010-0105-z
    [2]
    A. Isidori, L. Marconi, and A. Serrani, Robust autonomous guidance: an internal model approach. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
    [3]
    L. Marconi, C. Melchiorri, M. Beetz, D. Pangercic, R. Siegwart, S. Leutenegger, R. Carloni, S. Stramigioli, H. Bruyninckx, P. Doherty, A. Kleiner, V. Lippiello, A. Finzi, B. Siciliano, A. Sala, and N. Tomatis, " The SHERPA project: smart collaboration between humans and ground-aerial robots for improving rescuing activities in alpine environments, ” in Proc. 2012 IEEE Int. Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), 2012, pp. 1–4.
    [4]
    P. B. Sujit, S. Saripalli, and J. B. Sousa, " Unmanned aerial vehicle path following: a survey and analysis of algorithms for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles,” IEEE Control Systems, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 42–59, 2014. doi: 10.1109/MCS.2013.2287568
    [5]
    A. P. Aguiar, J. P. Hespanha, and P. V. Kokotovic, " Performance limi-tations in reference tracking and path following for nonlinear systems,” Automatica, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 598–610, 2008. doi: 10.1016/j.automatica.2007.06.030
    [6]
    L. Furieri, T. Stastny, L. Marconi, R. Siegwart, and I. Gilitschenski, " Gone with the wind: nonlinear guidance for small fixed-wing aircraft in arbitrarily strong windfields, ” in Proc. 2017 American Control Conf. (ACC’17), pp. 4254–4261.
    [7]
    D. Invernizzi and M. Lovera, " Trajectory tracking control of thrustvectoring UAVs,” Automatica, vol. 95, pp. 180–186, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.automatica.2018.05.024
    [8]
    D. V. Dimarogonas, " Sufficient conditions for decentralized potential functions based controllers using canonical vector fields,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 2621–2626, 2012. doi: 10.1109/TAC.2012.2191319
    [9]
    M. Kothari, I. Postlethwaite, and D.-W. Gu, " UAV path following in windy urban environments,” Journal of Intelligent &Robotic Systems, vol. 74, no. 3-4, pp. 1013–1028, 2014.
    [10]
    F. Gavilan, R. Vazquez, and S. Esteban, " Trajectory tracking for fixedwing UAV using model predictive control and adaptive backstepping,” in Proc. 1st IFAC Workshop on Advanced Control and Navigation for Autonomous Aerospace Vehicles (ACNAAV’15), pp. 132-137, pp. 132–137, 2015.
    [11]
    J. Chang, J. Cieslak, J. Dávila, A. Zolghadri, and J. Zhou, " Analysis and design of second-order sliding-mode algorithms for quadrotor roll and pitch estimation,” ISA Trans., pp. 495–512, 2017.
    [12]
    G. Casadei, L. Furieri, N. Mimmo, R. Naldi, and L. Marconi, " Internal model-based control for loitering maneuvers of UAVs, ” in Proc. 2016 European Control Conf. (ECC), pp. 672–677.
    [13]
    J. Chang, J. Cieslak, J. Davila, J. Zhou, A. Zolghadri, and Z. Guo, " A two-step approach for an enhanced quadrotor attitude estimation via imu data,” IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1140–1148, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TCST.2017.2695164
    [14]
    B. Zhou, H. Satyavada, and S. Baldi, " Adaptive path following for unmanned aerial vehicles in time-varying unknown wind environment,” in Proc. American Control Conf. (ACC’17), pp. 1127–1132, 2017.
    [15]
    N. Cho and Y. Kim, " Three-Dimensional nonlinear differential geometric path-following guidance law,” Journal of Guidance,Control,and Dynamics, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 948–954, 2015.
    [16]
    H. Chen, K. Chang, and C. S. Agate, " UAV path planning with tangentplus-lyapunov vector field guidance and obstacle avoidance,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 840–856, 2013. doi: 10.1109/TAES.2013.6494384
    [17]
    D. R. Nelson, D. B. Barber, T. W. McLain, and R. W. Beard, " Vector field path following for miniature air vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 519–529, 2007. doi: 10.1109/TRO.2007.898976
    [18]
    S. Baldi, S. Yuan, and P. Frasca, " Output synchronization of unknown heterogeneous agents via distributed model reference adaptation,” IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, 2018.
    [19]
    S. Baldi and P. Frasca, " Adaptive synchronization of unknown heterogeneous agents: an adaptive virtual model reference approach,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 356, no. 2, pp. 935–955, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jfranklin.2018.01.022
    [20]
    S. Baldi, " Cooperative output regulation of heterogeneous unknown systems via passification-based adaptation,” IEEE Control Systems Letters, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 151–156, 2018. doi: 10.1109/LCSYS.2017.2778009
    [21]
    Y. Abou Harfouch, S. Yuan, and S. Baldi, " An adaptive switched control approach to heterogeneous platooning with inter-vehicle communication losses,” IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1434–1444, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TCNS.2017.2718359
    [22]
    S. Baldi, M. R. Rosa, and P. Frasca, " Adaptive state-feedback synchronization with distributed input: the cyclic case,” in Proc. 7th IFAC Workshop on Distributed Estimation and Control in Networked Systems (NECSYS), Groningen, The Netherlands, 2018.
    [23]
    S. Baldi, I. A. Azzollini, and E. B. Kosmatopoulos, " A distributed disagreement-based protocol for synchronization of uncertain heterogeneous agents,” European Control Conf.,Limassol,Cyprus, 2018.
    [24]
    Y. Abou Harfouch, S. Yuan, and S. Baldi, " An adaptive switched control approach to heterogeneous platooning with inter-vehicle communication losses,” in Proc. 20th IFAC World Congr., Toulouse, France, pp. 1382–1387, 2017.
    [25]
    B. L. Stevens, F. L. Lewis, and E. N. Johnson, Aircraft Control and Simulation: Dynamics, Controls Design, and Autonomous Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
    [26]
    R. W. Beard and T. W. McLain, Small Unmanned Aircraft: Theory and Practice. Princeton University Press, 2012.
    [27]
    " Dryden wind turbulence model (discrete) Simulink, ” 2019. [Online]. Available: https://nl.mathworks.com/help/aeroblks/wind.html
    [28]
    " Aerospace block-set Simulink, ” 2019. [Online]. Available: https://nl.mathworks.com/help/aeroblks/index.html
    [29]
    S. Farì, " Guidance and control for a fixed-wing UAV, ” M.S. thesis, POLIMI. , IT, 2017.
    [30]
    " Ardupilot documentation, ” 2019. [Online]. Available: http://ardupilot.org/
    [31]
    " Learning the ardupilot codebase, ” 2019. [Online]. Available: http://ardupilot.org/dev/docs/learning-the-ardupilot-codebase.html
    [32]
    " Roll, pitch and yaw controller tuning, ” 2019. [Online]. Available: http://ardupilot.org/plane/docs/roll-pitch-controller-tuning.html
    [33]
    L. Meier, D. Honegger, and M. Pollefeys, " Px4: a node-based multithreaded open source robotics framework for deeply embedded platforms, ” in Proc. 2015 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 6235–6240.
    [34]
    " Hkpilot32 flight controller, ” 2019. [Online]. Available: https://docs.px4.io/en/flight-controller/HKPilot32.html

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(15)  / Tables(4)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (2553) PDF downloads(123) Cited by()

    Highlights

    • Adaptive formation controllers for fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).
    • Design and software-in-the-loop implementation.
    • Parametric uncertainty in the UAV structure, namely uncertain mass and inertia.
    • The autopilot is based on ArduPilot, a popular open-source autopilot suite.
    • The ArduPilot functionalities are emulated in Matlab according to the Ardupilot code.

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return