IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica
Citation:  Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, and Z. Chen, “A PI+R control scheme based on multiagent systems for economic dispatch in isolated BESSs,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 2154–2165, Oct. 2024. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2024.124236 
Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are widely used in smart grids. However, power consumed by inner impedance and the capacity degradation of each battery unit become particularly severe, which has resulted in an increase in operating costs. The general economic dispatch (ED) algorithm based on marginal cost (MC) consensus is usually a proportional (P) controller, which encounters the defects of slow convergence speed and low control accuracy. In order to solve the distributed ED problem of the isolated BESS network with excellent dynamic and steadystate performance, we attempt to design a proportional integral (PI) controller with a reset mechanism (PI+R) to asymptotically promote MC consensus and total power mismatch towards 0 in this paper. To be frank, the integral term in the PI controller is reset to 0 at an appropriate time when the proportional term undergoes a zero crossing, which accelerates convergence, improves control accuracy, and avoids overshoot. The eigenvalues of the system under a PI+R controller is well analyzed, ensuring the regularity of the system and enabling the reset mechanism. To ensure supply and demand balance within the isolated BESSs, a centralized reset mechanism is introduced, so that the controller is distributed in a flow set and centralized in a jump set. To cope with Zeno behavior and input delay, a dwell time that the system resides in a flow set is given. Based on this, the system with input delays can be reduced to a timedelay free system. Considering the capacity limitation of the battery, a modified MC scheme with PI+R controller is designed. The correctness of the designed scheme is verified through relevant simulations.
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