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Volume 10 Issue 1
Jan.  2023

IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

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W. Lu, J. C. Li, H. H. Qin, L. Shu, and A. G. Song, “On dual-mode driving control method for a novel unmanned tractor with high safety and reliability,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 254–271, Jan. 2023. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123072
 Citation: W. Lu, J. C. Li, H. H. Qin, L. Shu, and A. G. Song, “On dual-mode driving control method for a novel unmanned tractor with high safety and reliability,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 254–271, Jan. 2023.

# On Dual-Mode Driving Control Method for a Novel Unmanned Tractor With High Safety and Reliability

##### doi: 10.1109/JAS.2023.123072
Funds:  This work was supported in part by the Independent Innovation Project of Agricultural Science and Technology of Jiangsu Province (CX (20)3068), Modern Agricultural Machinery Equipment and Technology Demonstration and Promotion Project of Jiangsu Province (NJ2021-37), National Foreign Experts Program of China (G2021145010L), Science and Technology Project of Suzhou City (SNG2020039)
• Due to the non-standardization and complexity of the farmland environment, it is always a huge challenge for tractors to achieve fully autonomy (work at Self-driving mode) all the time in agricultural industry. Whereas, when tractors work in the Tele-driving (or Remote driving) mode, the operators are prone to fatigue because they need to concentrate for long periods of time. In response to these, a dual-mode control strategy was proposed to integrate the advantages of both approaches, i.e., by combing Self-driving at most of the time with Tele-driving under special (complex and hazardous) conditions through switching control method. First, the state switcher was proposed, which is used for smooth switching the driving modes according to different working states of a tractor. Then, the state switching control law and the corresponding subsystem tracking controllers were designed. Finally, the effectiveness and superiority of the dual-mode control method were evaluated via actual experimental testing of a tractor whose results show that the proposed control method can switch smoothly, stably, and efficiently between the two driving modes automatically. The average control accuracy has been improved by 20% and 15% respectively, compared to the conventional Tele-driving control and Self-driving control with low-precision navigation. In conclusion, the proposed dual-mode control method can not only satisfy the operation in the complex and changeable farmland environment, but also free drivers from high-intensity and fatiguing work. This provides a perfect application solution and theoretical support for the intelligentization of unmanned farm agricultural machinery with high safety and reliability.

• 1 The control input in Fig. 5 is the steering angle (θ) of the steering, where satisfied $\theta = f(\delta)$. The function $f(\cdot)$ satisfies the geometric relationship of the designed steering manipulator model.
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