A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 5,  No. 5, 2018

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Iterative Learning Control With Incomplete Information: A Survey
Dong Shen
2018, 5(5): 885-901. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511123
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This paper conducts a survey on iterative learning control (ILC) with incomplete information and associated control system design, which is a frontier of the ILC field. The incomplete information, including passive and active types, can cause data loss or fragment due to various factors. Passive incomplete information refers to incomplete data and information caused by practical system limitations during data collection, storage, transmission, and processing, such as data dropouts, delays, disordering, and limited transmission bandwidth. Active incomplete information refers to incomplete data and information caused by man-made reduction of data quantity and quality on the premise that the given objective is satisfied, such as sampling and quantization. This survey emphasizes two aspects: the first one is how to guarantee good learning performance and tracking performance with passive incomplete data, and the second is how to balance the control performance index and data demand by active means. The promising research directions along this topic are also addressed, where data robustness is highly emphasized. This survey is expected to improve understanding of the restrictive relationship and trade-off between incomplete data and tracking performance, quantitatively, and promote further developments of ILC theory.
Fundamental Issues in Networked Control Systems
Magdi S. Mahmoud, Mutaz M. Hamdan
2018, 5(5): 902-922. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511162
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This paper provides a survey on modeling and theories of networked control systems (NCS). In the first part, modeling of the different types of imperfections that affect NCS is discussed. These imperfections are quantization errors, packet dropouts, variable sampling/transmission intervals, variable transmission delays, and communication constraints. Then follows in the second part a presentation of several theories that have been applied for controlling networked systems. These theories include: input delay system approach, Markovian system approach, switched system approach, stochastic system approach, impulsive system approach, and predictive control approach. In the last part, some advanced issues in NCS including decentralized and distributed NCS, cloud control system, and co-design of NCS are reviewed.
Adaptive Neural Network-Based Control for a Class of Nonlinear Pure-Feedback Systems With Time-Varying Full State Constraints
Tingting Gao, Yan-Jun Liu, Lei Liu, Dapeng Li
2018, 5(5): 923-933. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511195
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In this paper, an adaptive neural network (NN) control approach is proposed for nonlinear pure-feedback systems with time-varying full state constraints. The pure-feedback systems of this paper are assumed to possess nonlinear function uncertainties. By using the mean value theorem, pure-feedback systems can be transformed into strict feedback forms. For the newly generated systems, NNs are employed to approximate unknown items. Based on the adaptive control scheme and backstepping algorithm, an intelligent controller is designed. At the same time, time-varying Barrier Lyapunov functions (BLFs) with error variables are adopted to avoid violating full state constraints in every step of the backstepping design. All closedloop signals are uniformly ultimately bounded and the output tracking error converges to the neighborhood of zero, which can be verified by using the Lyapunov stability theorem. Two simulation examples reveal the performance of the adaptive NN control approach.
A Dynamic Road Incident Information Delivery Strategy to Reduce Urban Traffic Congestion
Liang Qi, Mengchu Zhou, Wenjing Luan
2018, 5(5): 934-945. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511165
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Advanced information and communication technologies can be used to facilitate traffic incident management. If an incident is detected and blocks a road link, in order to reduce the incident-induced traffic congestion, a dynamic strategy to deliver incident information to selected drivers and help them make detours in urban areas is proposed by this work. Time-dependent shortest path algorithms are used to generate a subnetwork where vehicles should receive such information. A simulation approach based on an extended cell transmission model is used to describe traffic flow in urban networks where path information and traffic flow at downstream road links are well modeled. Simulation results reveal the influences of some major parameters of an incident-induced congestion dissipation process such as the ratio of route-changing vehicles to the total vehicles, operation time interval of the proposed strategy, traffic density in the traffic network, and the scope of the area where traffic incident information is delivered. The results can be used to improve the state of the art in preventing urban road traffic congestion caused by incidents.
Feed-Forward Active Noise Control System Using Microphone Array
Lichuan Liu, Yang Li, Sen M. Kuo
2018, 5(5): 946-952. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511171
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Feedforward active noise control (ANC) system are widely used to reduce the wide-band noise in different application. In feedforward ANC systems, when the noise source is unknown, the misplacement of the reference microphone may violate the causality constraint. We present a performance analysis of the feedforward ANC system under a noncausal condition. The ANC system performance degrades when the degree of noncausality increases. This research applies the microphone array technique to feedforward ANC systems to solve the unknown noise source problem. The generalized cross-correlation (GCC) and steering response power (SRP) methods based on microphone array are used to estimate the noise source location. Then, the ANC system selects the proper reference microphone for a noise control algorithm. The simulation and experiment results show that the SRP method can estimate the noise source direction with 84% accuracy. The proposed microphone array integrated ANC system can dramatically improve the system performance.
Energy Efficient Predictive Control for Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle Systems
Xiaohong Yin, Shaoyuan Li
2018, 5(5): 953-960. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510250
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Vapor compression refrigeration cycle (VCC) system is a high dimensional coupling thermodynamic system for which the controller design is a great challenge. In this paper, a model predictive control based energy efficient control strategy which aims at maximizing the system efficiency is proposed. Firstly, according to the mass and energy conservation law, an analysis on the nonlinear relationship between superheat and cooling load is carried out, which can produce the maximal effect on the system performance. Then a model predictive control (MPC) based controller is developed for tracking the calculated setting curve of superheat degree and pressure difference based on model identified from data which can be obtained from an experimental rig. The proposed control strategy maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP) which depends on operating conditions, in the meantime, it meets the changing demands of cooling capacity. The effectiveness of the control performance is validated on the experimental rig.
A Robust Reserve Scheduling Method Considering Asymmetrical Wind Power Distribution
Guanzhong Wang, Qiaoyan Bian, Huanhai Xin, Zhen Wang
2018, 5(5): 961-967. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510652
Abstract(1148) HTML (872) PDF(18)
Nowadays, limited predictability and controllability of wind power are regarded as some bottlenecks to wind generation integration with the power system. This paper introduces a robust reserve scheduling method, where the spinning reserve allocation among conventional units is considered as well. The method applies to asymmetrical wind power distribution, and offers control on the degree of solution's conservatism by changing the robustness budget. Meanwhile, distributional information of wind power is represented by mean value and asymmetrical bounds. Furthermore, the model is converted into a deterministic programming problem with dual theory. Case studies for asymmetrically distributed wind power illustrate its effectiveness.
Modeling of Energy Consumption and Effluent Quality Using Density Peaks-based Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Network
Junfei Qiao, Hongbiao Zhou
2018, 5(5): 968-976. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511168
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Modeling of energy consumption (EC) and effluent quality (EQ) are very essential problems that need to be solved for the multiobjective optimal control in the wastewater treatment process (WWTP). To address this issue, a density peaks-based adaptive fuzzy neural network (DP-AFNN) is proposed in this study. To obtain suitable fuzzy rules, a DP-based clustering method is applied to fit the cluster centers to process nonlinearity. The parameters of the extracted fuzzy rules are fine-tuned based on the improved Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the training process. Furthermore, the analysis of convergence is performed to guarantee the successful application of the DPAFNN. Finally, the proposed DP-AFNN is utilized to develop the models of EC and EQ in the WWTP. The experimental results show that the proposed DP-AFNN can achieve fast convergence speed and high prediction accuracy in comparison with some existing methods.
Design and Implementation of Digital Fractional Order PID Controller Using Optimal Pole-Zero Approximation Method for Magnetic Levitation System
Amit S. Chopade, Swapnil W. Khubalkar, A.S. Junghare, M.V. Aware, Shantanu Das
2018, 5(5): 977-989. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510181
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The aim of this paper is to employ fractional order proportional integral derivative (FO-PID) controller and integer order PID controller to control the position of the levitated object in a magnetic levitation system (MLS), which is inherently nonlinear and unstable system. The proposal is to deploy discrete optimal pole-zero approximation method for realization of digital fractional order controller. An approach of phase shaping by slope cancellation of asymptotic phase plots for zeros and poles within given bandwidth is explored. The controller parameters are tuned using dynamic particle swarm optimization (dPSO) technique. Effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by simulation and experimental results. The performance of realized digital FO-PID controller has been compared with that of the integer order PID controllers. It is observed that effort required in fractional order control is smaller as compared with its integer counterpart for obtaining the same system performance.
Observer-based Iterative and Repetitive Learning Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems
Sheng Zhu, Xuejie Wang, Hong Liu
2018, 5(5): 990-998. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510463
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In this paper, both output-feedback iterative learning control (ILC) and repetitive learning control (RLC) schemes are proposed for trajectory tracking of nonlinear systems with state-dependent time-varying uncertainties. An iterative learning controller, together with a state observer and a fully-saturated learning mechanism, through Lyapunov-like synthesis, is designed to deal with time-varying parametric uncertainties. The estimations for outputs, instead of system outputs themselves, are applied to form the error equation, which helps to establish convergence of the system outputs to the desired ones. This method is then extended to repetitive learning controller design. The boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop is guaranteed and asymptotic convergence of both the state estimation error and the tracking error is established in both cases of ILC and RLC. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
An Iterative Method for Optimal Feedback Control and Generalized HJB Equation
Xuesong Chen, Xin Chen
2018, 5(5): 999-1006. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510706
Abstract(1094) HTML (826) PDF(29)
In this paper, a new iterative method is proposed to solve the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (GHJB) equation through successively approximate it. Firstly, the GHJB equation is converted to an algebraic equation with the vector norm, which is essentially a set of simultaneous nonlinear equations in the case of dynamic systems. Then, the proposed algorithm solves GHJB equation numerically for points near the origin by considering the linearization of the non-linear equations under a good initial control guess. Finally, the procedure is proved to converge to the optimal stabilizing solution with respect to the iteration variable. In addition, it is shown that the result is a closed-loop control based on this iterative approach. Illustrative examples show that the update control laws will converge to optimal control for nonlinear systems.
Digital Filter Algorithm Based on Morphological Lifting Scheme and Median Filter
Lan Zhang
2018, 5(5): 1007-1011. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510244
Abstract(1104) HTML (830) PDF(16)
When the circuits in which electronic products are fitted are disturbed by various interrupting signals, wave distortions occur to the normal voltage signals of these circuits. These wave distortions influence the normal operation and life cycle of electronic products. To eliminate the harmful effects of interrupting signals on electronic products, in this paper, a digital filter algorithm based on morphological lifting scheme and median filter (MLS-MF), which will be used to filter various interrupting signals existing in the circuits in which electronic products are fitted, is proposed. A variety of interrupting signals have been included in simulation studies, and simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed digital filter algorithm in high frequency continuous interference, random background noise and damped oscillatory transient interference filter.
A Situation-Aware Collision Avoidance Strategy for Car-Following
Li Li, Xinyu Peng, Fei-Yue Wang, Dongpu Cao, Lingxi Li
2018, 5(5): 1012-1016. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511198
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In this paper, we discuss how to develop an appropriate collision avoidance strategy for car-following. This strategy aims to keep a good balance between traffic safety and efficiency while also taking into consideration the unavoidable uncertainty of position/speed perception/measurement of vehicles and other drivers. Both theoretical analysis and numerical testing results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
Finite-time Stabilization of the Double Integrator Subject to Input Saturation and Input Delay
Huawen Ye, Meng Li, Chunhua Yang, Weihua Gui
2018, 5(5): 1017-1024. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511177
Abstract(1129) HTML (863) PDF(46)
The time-optimal control design of the double integrator is extended to the finite-time stabilization design that compensates both input saturation and input delay. With the aid of the Artstein's transformation, the problem is reduced to assigning a saturated finite-time stabilizer.