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SPECIAL ISSUE ON COGNITIVE COMPUTING FOR COLLABORATIVE ROBOTICS
Global-Attention-Based Neural Networks for Vision Language Intelligence
Pei Liu, Yingjie Zhou, Dezhong Peng, Dapeng Wu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003402
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In this paper, we develop a novel global-attention-based neural network (GANN) for vision language intelligence, specifically, image captioning (language description of a given image). As many previous works, an encoder-decoder framework is adopted in our proposed model, in which the encoder is responsible for encoding the region proposal features and extracting global caption feature based on a specially designed module of predicting the caption objects, and the decoder generates captions by taking the obtained global caption feature along with the encoded visual features as inputs for each attention head of the decoder layer. The global caption feature is introduced for the purpose of exploring the latent contributions of extracted region proposals for image captioning, and further helping the decoder better focus on the most relevant proposals so as to extract more accurate visual features in each time step of caption generation. Our GANN architecture is implemented by incorporating the global caption feature into the attention weight calculation phase in the word predication process in each head of the decoder layer. In our experiments, we qualitatively analyzed the proposed model, and quantitatively evaluated several state-of-the-art schemes with GANN on the MS-COCO dataset. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global attention mechanism for image captioning.
Learning Convex Optimization Models
Akshay Agrawal, Shane Barratt, Stephen Boyd
, Available online  
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A convex optimization model predicts an output from an input by solving a convex optimization problem. The class of convex optimization models is large, and includes as special cases many well-known models like linear and logistic regression. We propose a heuristic for learning the parameters in a convex optimization model given a dataset of input-output pairs, using recently developed methods for differentiating the solution of a convex optimization problem with respect to its parameters. We describe three general classes of convex optimization models, maximum a posteriori (MAP) models, utility maximization models, and agent models, and present a numerical experiment for each.
Adaptive Consensus of Non-strict Feedback Switched Multi-agent Systems With Input Saturations
Zhanjie Li, Jun Zhao
, Available online  
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This paper considers the leader-following consensus for a class of nonlinear switched multi-agent systems with non-strict feedback forms and input saturations under unknown switching mechanisms. First, in virtue of Gaussian error functions, the saturation nonlinearities are represented by asymmetric saturation models. Second, neural networks are utilized to approximate some unknown packaged functions, and the structural property of Gaussian basis functions is introduced to handle the non-strict feedback terms. Third, by using the backstepping process, a common Lyapunov function is constructed for all the subsystems of the followers. At last, we propose an adaptive consensus protocol, under which the tracking error under arbitrary switching converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the proposed protocol is illustrated by a simulation example.
Passivity-Based Robust Control Against Quantified False Data Injection Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems
Yue Zhao, Ze Chen, Chunjie Zhou, Yu-Chu Tian, Yuanqing Qin
, Available online  
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Secure control against cyber attacks becomes increasingly significant in cyber-physical systems (CPSs). False data injection attacks are a class of cyber attacks that aim to compromise CPS functions by injecting false data such as sensor measurements and control signals. For quantified false data injection attacks, this paper establishes an effective defense framework from the energy conversion perspective. Then, we design an energy controller to dynamically adjust the system energy changes caused by unknown attacks. The designed energy controller stabilizes the attacked CPSs and ensures the dynamic performance of the system by adjusting the amount of damping injection. Moreover, with the \begin{document}$ L_2 $\end{document} disturbance attenuation technique, the burden of control system design is simplified because there is no need to design an attack observer. In addition, this secure control method is simple to implement because it avoids complicated mathematical operations. The effectiveness of our control method is demonstrated through an industrial CPS that controls a permanent magnet synchronous motor.
Radial Basis Function Interpolation and Galerkin Projection for Direct Trajectory Optimization and Costate Estimation
Hossein Mirinejad, Tamer Inanc, Jacek M. Zurada
, Available online  
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This work presents a novel approach combining radial basis function (RBF) interpolation with Galerkin projection to efficiently solve general optimal control problems. The goal is to develop a highly flexible solution to optimal control problems, especially nonsmooth problems involving discontinuities, while accounting for trajectory accuracy and computational efficiency simultaneously. The proposed solution, called the RBF-Galerkin method, offers a highly flexible framework for direct transcription by using any interpolant functions from the broad class of global RBFs and any arbitrary discretization points that do not necessarily need to be on a mesh of points. The RBF-Galerkin costate mapping theorem is developed that describes an exact equivalency between the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions of the nonlinear programming problem resulted from the RBF-Galerkin method and the discretized form of the first-order necessary conditions of the optimal control problem, if a set of discrete conditions holds. The efficacy of the proposed method along with the accuracy of the RBF-Galerkin costate mapping theorem is confirmed against an analytical solution for a bang-bang optimal control problem. In addition, the proposed approach is compared against both local and global polynomial methods for a robot motion planning problem to verify its accuracy and computational efficiency.
Robust Controller Synthesis and Analysis in Inverter-Dominant Droop-Controlled Islanded Microgrids
S. Mohsen Azizi
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004006
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This work investigates the problem of controller design for the inverters in an islanded microgrid. Robust \begin{document}$\mu$\end{document}-synthesis controllers and local droop controllers are designed to regulate the output voltages of inverters and share power among them, respectively. The designed controllers alleviate the need for additional sensors to measure the states of the system by relying only on output feedback. It is shown that the designed \begin{document}$\mu$\end{document}-synthesis controller properly damps resonant oscillations, and its performance is robust to the control-loop time delay and parameter uncertainties. The stability of a droop-controlled islanded microgrid including multiple distributed generation (DG) units is analyzed by linearizing the nonlinear power flow model around the nominal operating point and applying theorems from linear algebra. It is indicated that the droop controller stabilizes the microgrid system with dominantly inductive tie-line impedances for all values of resistive-inductive loads, while for the case of resistive-capacitive loads the stability is conditioned on an upper bound on the load susceptances. The robust performance of the designed \begin{document}$\mu$\end{document}-synthesis controller is studied analytically, compared with the similar analysis in an \begin{document}$H_{\infty}$\end{document} control (benchmark) framework, and verified by simulations for a four DG benchmark microgrid. Furthermore, the robustness of the droop controllers is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations in the presence of local voltage fluctuations and phase differences among neighboring DGs.
An RGB-D Camera Based Visual Positioning System for Assistive Navigation by a Robotic Navigation Aid
He Zhang, Lingqiu Jin, Cang Ye
, Available online  
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There are about 253 million people with visual impairment worldwide. Many of them use a white cane and/or a guide dog as the mobility tool for daily travel. Despite decades of efforts, electronic navigation aid that can replace white cane is still research in progress. In this paper, we propose an RGB-D camera based visual positioning system (VPS) for real-time localization of a robotic navigation aid (RNA) in an architectural floor plan for assistive navigation. The core of the system is the combination of a new 6-DOF depth-enhanced visual-inertial odometry (DVIO) method and a particle filter localization (PFL) method. DVIO estimates RNA’s pose by using the data from an RGB-D camera and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). It extracts the floor plane from the camera’s depth data and tightly couples the floor plane, the visual features (with and without depth data), and the IMU’s inertial data in a graph optimization framework to estimate the device’s 6-DOF pose. Due to the use of the floor plane and depth data from the RGB-D camera, DVIO has a better pose estimation accuracy than the conventional VIO method. To reduce the accumulated pose error of DVIO for navigation in a large indoor space, we developed the PFL method to locate RNA in the floor plan. PFL leverages geometric information of the architectural CAD drawing of an indoor space to further reduce the error of the DVIO-estimated pose. Based on VPS, an assistive navigation system is developed for the RNA prototype to assist a visually impaired person in navigating a large indoor space. Experimental results demonstrate that: 1) DVIO method achieves better pose estimation accuracy than the state-of-the-art VIO method and performs real-time pose estimation (18 Hz pose update rate) on a UP Board computer; 2) PFL reduces the DVIO-accrued pose error by 82.5% on average and allows for accurate wayfinding (endpoint position error ≤ 45 cm) in large indoor spaces.
Cooperative Multi-Agent Control for Autonomous Ship Towing Under Environmental Disturbances
Zhe Du, Rudy R. Negenborn, Vasso Reppa
, Available online  
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Among the promising application of autonomous surface vessels (ASVs) is the utilization of multiple autonomous tugs for manipulating a floating object such as an oil platform, a broken ship, or a ship in port areas. Considering the real conditions and operations of maritime practice, this paper proposes a multi-agent control algorithm to manipulate a ship to a desired position with a desired heading and velocity under the environmental disturbances. The control architecture consists of a supervisory controller in the higher layer and tug controllers in the lower layer. The supervisory controller allocates the towing forces and angles between the tugs and the ship by minimizing the error in the position and velocity of the ship. The weight coefficients in the cost function are designed to be adaptive to guarantee that the towing system functions well under environmental disturbances, and to enhance the efficiency of the towing system. The tug controller provides the forces to tow the ship and tracks the reference trajectory that is computed online based on the towing angles calculated by the supervisory controller. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can make the two autonomous tugs cooperatively tow a ship to a desired position with a desired heading and velocity under the (even harsh) environmental disturbances.
Dynamic Event-Triggered Scheduling and Platooning Control Co-Design for Automated Vehicles Over Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Xiaohua Ge, Shunyuan Xiao, Qing-Long Han, Xian-Ming Zhang, Derui Ding
, Available online  
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This paper deals with the co-design problem of event-triggered communication scheduling and platooning control over vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) subject to finite communication resource. First, a unified model is presented to describe the coordinated platoon behavior of leader-follower vehicles in the simultaneous presence of unknown external disturbances and an unknown leader control input. Under such a platoon model, the central aim is to achieve robust platoon formation tracking with desired inter-vehicle spacing and same velocities and accelerations guided by the leader, while maintaining improved communication efficiency. Toward this aim, a novel bandwidth-aware dynamic event-triggered scheduling mechanism is developed. One salient feature of the scheduling mechanism is that the threshold parameter in the triggering law is dynamically adjusted over time based on both vehicular state variations and bandwidth status. Then, a sufficient condition for platoon control system stability and performance analysis as well as a co-design criterion of the admissible event-triggered platooning control law and the desired scheduling mechanism are derived. Finally, simulation results are provided to sustain the effectiveness and merits of the proposed co-design approach for guaranteeing a better trade-off between robust platooning control performance and communication efficiency.
A Cognitive Memory-Augmented Network for Visual Anomaly Detection
Tian Wang, Xing Xu, Fumin Shen, Yang Yang
, Available online  
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With the rapid development of automated visual analysis, visual analysis systems have become a popular research topic in the field of computer vision and automated analysis. Visual analysis systems can assist humans to detect anomalous events (e.g., fighting, walking alone on the grass, etc). In general, the existing methods for visual anomaly detection are usually based on an autoencoder architecture, i.e., reconstructing the current frame or predicting the future frame. Then, the reconstruction error is adopted as the evaluation metric to identify whether an input is abnormal or not. The flaws of the existing methods are that abnormal samples can also be reconstructed well. In this paper, inspired by the human memory ability, we propose a novel deep neural network (DNN) based model termed cognitive memory-augmented network (CMAN) for the visual anomaly detection problem. The proposed CMAN model assumes that the visual analysis system imitates humans to remember normal samples and then distinguishes abnormal events from the collected videos. Specifically, in the proposed CMAN model, we introduce a memory module that is able to simulate the memory capacity of humans and a density estimation network that can learn the data distribution. The reconstruction errors and the novelty scores are used to distinguish abnormal events from videos. In addition, we develop a two-step scheme to train the proposed model so that the proposed memory module and the density estimation network can cooperate to improve performance. Comprehensive experiments evaluated on various popular benchmarks show the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed CMAN model for visual anomaly detection comparing with the state-of-the-arts methods. The implementation code of our CMAN method can be accessed at https://github.com/CMAN-code/CMAN_pytorch.
Blockchain-based Secured IPFS-Enable Event Storage Technique with Authentication Protocol in VANET
Sanjeev Kumar Dwivedi, Ruhul Amin, Satyanarayana Vollala
, Available online  
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In recent decades, intelligent transportation systems have improved drivers' safety and have shared information (such as traffic congestion and accidents) in a very efficient way. However, the privacy of vehicles and security of event information is a major concern, and blockchain technology has raised hopes that the problem of secure sharing of event information without compromising the trusted third party (TTP) and data storage issue can be resolved. Dwivedi et al. presented a blockchain-based protocol for secure sharing of events and authentication of vehicles. With the rigorous analysis of their protocol, it is found that only for secure storing of event information, they utilize the blockchain technology and authentication of vehicles solely depends on the cloud server. As a result, their scheme utilizes the notion of partially decentralized architecture. This article first shows the various loopholes of the blockchain-based event sharing protocol proposed by the Dwivedi et al. Then we propose a novel decentralized architecture for the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) without the cloud server, and based on it, the protocol for secure sharing of event information and vehicle's authentication using the blockchain mechanism has been proposed where the registered user access the event information securely from interplanetary file system (IPFS). We incorporate the IPFS, along with blockchain for storing the information in a fully distributed manner. Furthermore, the proposed protocol is compared with existing protocols, and the comparison provides desirable security at a reasonable cost. The evaluation of the proposed smart contract in terms of its associated cost is also presented in this paper.
A Fully Distributed Approach to Optimal Energy Scheduling of Users and Generators Considering a Novel Combined Neurodynamic Algorithm in Smart Grid
Chentao Xu, Xing He
, Available online  
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A fully distributed microgrid system model is presented in this paper. In the user side, two types of load and plug-in electric vehicles are considered to schedule energy for more benefits. The charging and discharging states of the electric vehicles are represented by the zero-one variables with more flexibility. To solve the nonconvex optimization problem of the users, a novel neurodynamic algorithm which combines the neural network algorithm with the differential evolution algorithm is designed and its convergence speed is faster. A distributed algorithm with a new approach to deal with the equality constraints is used to solve the convex optimization problem of the generators which can protect their privacy. Simulation results and comparative experiments show that the model and algorithms are effective.
A Survey and Tutorial of EEG-Based Brain Monitoring for Driver State Analysis
Ce Zhang, Azim Eskandarian
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003450
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The driver’s cognitive and physiological states affect his/her ability to control the vehicle. Thus, these driver states are essential to the safety of automobiles. The design of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or autonomous vehicles will depend on their ability to interact effectively with the driver. A deeper understanding of the driver state is, therefore, paramount. Electroencephalography (EEG) is proven to be one of the most effective methods for driver state monitoring and human error detection. This paper discusses EEG-based driver state detection systems and their corresponding analysis algorithms over the last three decades. First, the commonly used EEG system setup for driver state studies is introduced. Then, the EEG signal preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification algorithms for driver state detection are reviewed. Finally, EEG-based driver state monitoring research is reviewed in-depth, and its future development is discussed. It is concluded that the current EEG-based driver state monitoring algorithms are promising for safety applications. However, many improvements are still required in EEG artifact reduction, real-time processing, and between-subject classification accuracy.
Vehicle Motion Prediction at Intersections Based on the Turning Intention and Prior Trajectories Model
Ting Zhang, Wenjie Song, Mengyin Fu, Yi Yang, Meiling Wang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1003952
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Intersections are quite important and complex traffic scenarios, where the future motion of surrounding vehicles is an indispensable reference factor for the decision-making or path planning of autonomous vehicles. Considering that the motion trajectory of a vehicle at an intersection partly obeys the statistical law of historical data once its driving intention is determined, this paper proposes a long short-term memory based (LSTM-based) framework that combines intention prediction and trajectory prediction together. First, we build an intersection prior trajectories model (IPTM) by clustering and statistically analyzing a large number of prior traffic flow trajectories. The prior trajectories model with fitted probabilistic density is used to approximate the distribution of the predicted trajectory, and also serves as a reference for credibility evaluation. Second, we conduct the intention prediction through another LSTM model and regard it as a crucial cue for a trajectory forecast at the early stage. Furthermore, the predicted intention is also a key that is associated with the prior trajectories model. The proposed framework is validated on two publically released datasets, next generation simulation (NGSIM) and INTERACTION. Compared with other prediction methods, our framework is able to sample a trajectory from the estimated distribution, with its accuracy improved by about 20%. Finally, the credibility evaluation, which is based on the prior trajectories model, makes the framework more practical in the real-world applications.
Adaptive Generalized Eigenvector Estimating Algorithm for Hermitian Matrix Pencil
Yingbin Gao
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1003955
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Generalized eigenvector plays an essential role in the signal processing field. In this paper, we present a novel neural network learning algorithm for estimating the generalized eigenvector of a Hermitian matrix pencil. Differently from some traditional algorithms, which need to select the proper values of learning rates before using, the proposed algorithm does not need a learning rate and is very suitable for real applications. Through analyzing all of the equilibrium points, it is proven that if and only if the weight vector of the neural network is equal to the generalized eigenvector corresponding to the largest generalized eigenvalue of a Hermitian matrix pencil, the proposed algorithm reaches to convergence status. By using the deterministic discrete- time method, some convergence conditions, which can be satisfied with probability 1, are also obtained to guarantee its convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a fast convergence speed and good numerical stability. The real application demonstrates its effectiveness in tracking the optimal vector of beamforming.
Lightweight Image Super-Resolution via Weighted Multi-Scale Residual Network
Long Sun, Zhenbing Liu, Xiyan Sun, Licheng Liu, Rushi Lan, Xiaonan Luo
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004009
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The tradeoff between efficiency and model size of the convolutional neural network (CNN) is an essential issue for applications of CNN-based algorithms to diverse real-world tasks. Although deep learning-based methods have achieved significant improvements in image super-resolution (SR), current CNN-based techniques mainly contain massive parameters and a high computational complexity, limiting their practical applications. In this paper, we present a fast and lightweight framework, named weighted multi-scale residual network (WMRN), for a better tradeoff between SR performance and computational efficiency. With the modified residual structure, depthwise separable convolutions (DS Convs) are employed to improve convolutional operations’ efficiency. Furthermore, several weighted multi-scale residaul blocks (WMRBs) are stacked to enhance the multi-scale representation capability. In the reconstruction subnetwork, a group of Conv layers are introduced to filter feature maps to reconstruct the final high-quality image. Extensive experiments were conducted to evaluate the proposed model, and the comparative results with several state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate the effectiveness of WMRN.
IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica Special Issue on Cognitive Computing for Collaborative Robotics
Huimin Lu, Dongpu Cao, Dacheng Tao, Schahram Dustdar, Pinhan Ho
, Available online  
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Development of Granular Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on a Subset of Data
Dan Wang, Xiubin Zhu, Witold Pedycz, Zhenhua Yu, Zhiwu Li
, Available online  
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Developing and optimizing fuzzy relation equations are of great relevance in system modeling, which involves analysis of numerous fuzzy rules. As each rule varies with respect to its level of influence, it is advocated that the performance of a fuzzy relation equation is strongly related to a subset of fuzzy rules obtained by removing those without significant relevance. In this study, we establish a novel framework of developing granular fuzzy relation equations that concerns the determination of an optimal subset of fuzzy rules. The subset of rules is selected by maximizing their performance of the obtained solutions. The originality of this study is conducted in the following ways. Starting with developing granular fuzzy relation equations, an interval-valued fuzzy relation is determined based on the selected subset of fuzzy rules (the subset of rules is transformed to interval-valued fuzzy sets and subsequently the interval-valued fuzzy sets are utilized to form interval-valued fuzzy relations), which can be used to represent the fuzzy relation of the entire rule base with high performance and efficiency. Then, the Particle Swarm Optimization is implemented to solve a multi-objective optimization problem, in which not only an optimal subset of rules is selected but also a parameter ε for specifying a level of information granularity is determined. A series of experimental studies are performed to verify the feasibility of this framework and quantify its performance. A visible improvement of Particle Swarm Optimization (about 78.56% of the encoding mechanism of Particle Swarm Optimization, or 90.42% of Particle Swarm Optimization with an exploration operator) is gained over the method conducted without using the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm.
Remaining Useful Life Prediction for a Roller in a Hot Strip Mill Based on Deep Recurrent Neural Networks
Ruihua Jiao, Kaixiang Peng, Jie Dong
, Available online  
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Accurate estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL) and health state for rollers is of great significance to hot rolling production. It can provide decision support for roller management so as to improve the productivity of the hot rolling process. In addition, the RUL prediction for rollers is helpful in transitioning from the current regular maintenance strategy to conditional-based maintenance. Therefore, a new method that can extract coarse-grained and fine-grained features from batch data to predict the RUL of the rollers is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new deep learning network architecture based on recurrent neural networks that can make full use of the extracted coarsegrained fine-grained features to estimate the heath indicator (HI) is developed, where the HI is able to indicate the health state of the roller. Following that, a state-space model is constructed to describe the HI, and the probabilistic distribution of RUL can be estimated by extrapolating the HI degradation model to a predefined failure threshold. Finally, application to a hot strip mill is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods using data collected from an industrial site, and the relatively low RMSE and MAE values demonstrate its advantages compared with some other popular deep learning methods.
Scribble-Supervised Video Object Segmentation
Peiliang Huang, Junwei Han, Nian Liu, Jun Ren, Dingwen Zhang
, Available online  
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Recently, video object segmentation has received great attention in the computer vision community. Most of the existing methods heavily rely on the pixel-wise human annotations, which are expensive and time-consuming to obtain. To tackle this problem, we make an early attempt to achieve video object segmentation with scribble-level supervision, which can alleviate large amounts of human labor for collecting the manual annotation. However, using conventional network architectures and learning objective functions under this scenario cannot work well as the supervision information is highly sparse and incomplete. To address this issue, this paper introduces two novel elements to learn the video object segmentation model. The first one is the scribble attention module, which captures more accurate context information and learns an effective attention map to enhance the contrast between foreground and background. The other one is the scribble-supervised loss, which can optimize the unlabeled pixels and dynamically correct inaccurate segmented areas during the training stage. To evaluate the proposed method, we implement experiments on two video object segmentation benchmark datasets, YouTube-VOS, and DAVIS-2017. We first generate the scribble annotations from the original per-pixel annotations. Then, we train our model and compare its test performance with the baseline models and other existing works. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can work effectively and approach to the methods requiring the dense per-pixel annotations.
Limited-Budget Consensus Design and Analysis for Multiagent Systems With Switching Topologies and Intermittent Communications
Le Wang, Jianxiang Xi, Bo Hou, Guangbin Liu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004000
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This paper investigates limited-budget consensus design and analysis problems of general high-order multiagent systems with intermittent communications and switching topologies. The main contribution of this paper is that the trade-off design between the energy consumption and the consensus performance can be realized while achieving leaderless or leader-following consensus, under constraints of limited budgets and intermittent communications. Firstly, a new intermittent limited-budget consensus control protocol with a practical trade-off design index is proposed, where the total budget of the whole multiagent system is limited. Then, leaderless limited-budget consensus design and analysis criteria are derived, in which the matrix variables of linear matrix inequalities are determined according to the total budget and the practical trade-off design parameters. Meanwhile, an explicit formulation of the consensus function is derived to describe the consensus state trajectory of the whole system. Moreover, a new two-stage transformation strategy is utilized for leader-following cases, by which the dynamics decomposition of leaderless and leader-following cases can be converted into a unified framework, and sufficient conditions of the leader-following limited-budget consensus design and analysis are determined via those of the leaderless cases. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate theoretical results.
Multi-source Adaptive Selection and Fusion for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning
Y. Zheng, Q. Li, C. Wang, X. Wang, L. Hu
, Available online  
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Accurate multi-source fusion is based on the reliability, quantity, and fusion mode of the sources. The problem of selecting the optimal set for participating in the fusion process is nondeterministic-polynomial-time-hard and is neither sub-modular nor super-modular. Furthermore, in the case of the Kalman filter (KF) fusion algorithm, accurate statistical characteristics of noise are difficult to obtain, and this leads to an unsatisfactory fusion result. To settle the referred cases, a distributed and adaptive weighted fusion algorithm based on KF has been proposed in this paper. In this method, on the basis of the pseudo prior probability of the estimated state of each source, the reliability of the sources is evaluated and the optimal set is selected on a certain threshold. Experiments were performed on multi-source pedestrian dead reckoning for verifying the proposed algorithm. The results obtained from these experiments indicate that the optimal set can be selected accurately with minimal computation, and the fusion error is reduced by 16.6% as compared to the corresponding value resulting from the algorithm without improvements. The proposed adaptive source reliability and fusion weight evaluation is effective against the varied-noise multi-source fusion system, and the fusion error caused by inaccurate statistical characteristics of the noise is reduced by the adaptive weight evaluation. The proposed algorithm exhibits good robustness, adaptability, and value on applications.
Global Practical Stabilization of Discrete-time Switched Affine Systems via a General Quadratic Lyapunov Function and a Decentralized Ellipsoid
Mohammad Hejri
, Available online  
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This paper addresses the problem of global practical stabilization of discrete-time switched affine systems via state-dependent switching rules. Several attempts have been made to solve this problem via different types of a common quadratic Lyapunov function and an ellipsoid. These classical results require either the quadratic Lyapunov function or the employed ellipsoid to be of the centralized type. In some cases, the ellipsoids are defined dependently as the level sets of a decentralized Lyapunov function. In this paper, we extend the existing results by the simultaneous use of a general decentralized Lyapunov function and a decentralized ellipsoid parameterized independently. The proposed conditions provide less conservative results than existing works in the sense of the ultimate invariant set of attraction size. Two different approaches are proposed to extract the ultimate invariant set of attraction with a minimum size, i.e., a purely numerical method and a numerical-analytical one. In the former, both invariant and attractiveness conditions are imposed to extract the final set of matrix inequalities. The latter is established on a principle that the attractiveness of a set implies its invariance. Thus, the stability conditions are derived based on only the attractiveness property as a set of matrix inequalities with a smaller dimension. Illustrative examples are presented to prove the satisfactory operation of the proposed stabilization methods.
Multi-Candidate Voting Model Based on Blockchain
Dongliang Xu, Wei Shi, Wensheng Zhai, Zhihong Tian
, Available online  
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Electronic voting has partially solved the problems of poor anonymity and low efficiency associated with traditional voting. However, the difficulties it introduced into the supervision of the vote counting, as well as its need for a concurrent guaranteed trusted third party, should not be overlooked. With the advent of blockchain technology in recent years, its features such as decentralization, anonymity, and non-tampering have made it a good candidate in solving the problems that electronic voting faces. In this study, we propose a multi-candidate voting model based on the blockchain technology. By introducing an asymmetric encryption and an anonymity-preserving voting algorithm, votes can be counted without relying on a third party, and the voting results can be displayed in real time in a manner that satisfies various levels of voting security and privacy requirements. Experimental results show that the proposed model solves the aforementioned problems of electronic voting without significant negative impact from an increasing number of voters or candidates.
Iterative Learning Disturbance Observer Based Attitude Stabilization of Flexible Spacecraft Subject to Complex Disturbances and Measurement Noises
Tongfu He, Zhong Wu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1003958
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To realize high-precision attitude stabilization of a flexible spacecraft in the presence of complex disturbances and measurement noises, an iterative learning disturbance observer (ILDO) is presented in this paper. Firstly, a dynamic model of disturbance is built by augmenting the integral of the lumped disturbance as a state. Based on it, ILDO is designed by introducing iterative learning structures. Then, comparative analyses of ILDO and traditional disturbance observers are carried out in frequency domain. It demonstrates that ILDO combines the advantages of high accuracy in disturbance estimation and favorable robustness to measurement noise. After that, an ILDO based composite controller is designed to stabilize the spacecraft attitude. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by simulations.
Blockchain-Assisted Secure Fine-Grained Searchable Encryption for a Cloud-Based Healthcare Cyber-Physical System
Mamta, Brij B. Gupta, Kuan-Ching Li, Victor C. M. Leung, Kostas E. Psannis, Shingo Yamaguchi
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004003
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The concept of sharing of personal health data over cloud storage in a healthcare-cyber physical system has become popular in recent times as it improves access quality. The privacy of health data can only be preserved by keeping it in an encrypted form, but it affects usability and flexibility in terms of effective search. Attribute-based searchable encryption (ABSE) has proven its worth by providing fine-grained searching capabilities in the shared cloud storage. However, it is not practical to apply this scheme to the devices with limited resources and storage capacity because a typical ABSE involves serious computations. In a healthcare cloud-based cyber-physical system (CCPS), the data is often collected by resource-constraint devices; therefore, here also, we cannot directly apply ABSE schemes. In the proposed work, the inherent computational cost of the ABSE scheme is managed by executing the computationally intensive tasks of a typical ABSE scheme on the blockchain network. Thus, it makes the proposed scheme suitable for online storage and retrieval of personal health data in a typical CCPS. With the assistance of blockchain technology, the proposed scheme offers two main benefits. First, it is free from a trusted authority, which makes it genuinely decentralized and free from a single point of failure. Second, it is computationally efficient because the computational load is now distributed among the consensus nodes in the blockchain network. Specifically, the task of initializing the system, which is considered the most computationally intensive, and the task of partial search token generation, which is considered as the most frequent operation, is now the responsibility of the consensus nodes. This eliminates the need of the trusted authority and reduces the burden of data users, respectively. Further, in comparison to existing decentralized fine-grained searchable encryption schemes, the proposed scheme has achieved a significant reduction in storage and computational cost for the secret key associated with users. It has been verified both theoretically and practically in the performance analysis section.
Pseudo-Predictor Feedback Control for Multiagent Systems with Both State and Input Delays
Qingsong Liu
, Available online  
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This paper is concerned with the consensus problem for high-order continuous-time multiagent systems with both state and input delays. A novel approach referred to as pseudopredictor feedback protocol is proposed. Unlike the predictorbased feedback protocol which utilizes the open-loop dynamics to predict the future states, the pseudo-predictor feedback protocol uses the closed-loop dynamics of the multiagent systems to predict the future agent states. Full-order/reduced-order observer-based pseudo-predictor feedback protocols are proposed, and it is shown that the consensus is achieved and the input delay is compensated by the proposed protocols. Necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing the stability of the integral delay systems are provided in terms of the stability of the series of retarded-type time-delay systems. Furthermore, compared with the existing predictor-based protocols, the proposed pseudopredictor feedback protocol is independent of the input signals of the neighboring agents and is easier to implement. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
Decentralized Resilient H Load Frequency Control for Cyber-Physical Power Systems Under DoS Attacks
Xin Zhao, Suli Zou, Zhongjing Ma
, Available online  
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This paper designs a decentralized resilient H load frequency control (LFC) scheme for multi-area cyber-physical power systems (CPPSs). Under the network-based control framework, the sampled measurements are transmitted through the communication networks, which may be attacked by energy-limited denial-of-service (DoS) attacks with a characterization of the maximum count of continuous data losses (resilience index). Each area is controlled in a decentralized mode, and the impacts on one area from other areas via their interconnections are regarded as the additional load disturbance of this area. Then, the closed-loop LFC system of each area under DoS attacks is modeled as an aperiodic sampled-data control system with external disturbances. Under this modeling, a decentralized resilient H scheme is presented to design the state-feedback controllers with guaranteed H performance and resilience index based on a novel transmission interval-dependent loop functional method. When given the controllers, the proposed scheme can obtain a less conservative H performance and resilience index that the LFC system can tolerate. The effectiveness of the proposed LFC scheme is evaluated on a one-area CPPS and two three-area CPPSs under DoS attacks.
Distributed Order-Up-To Inventory Control in Networked Supply Systems With Delay
Przemysław Ignaciuk
, Available online  
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In this work, the dynamics of networked goods distribution systems subject to the control of a continuous-review order-up-to inventory policy are investigated. In the analytical study, as opposed to the earlier models constrained to the serial and arborescent interconnection structures, an arbitrary multi-echelon topology is considered. This external, uncertain demand, following any distribution, may be imposed on all network nodes, not just conveniently selected contact points. As in the physical systems, stock relocation to refill the reserves is subject to non-negligible delay, which poses a severe stability threat and may lead to cost-inefficient decisions. A state-space model is created and used as the framework for analyzing system properties. In particular, it is formally demonstrated that despite unpredictable demand fluctuations, a feasible (nonnegative and bounded) reserves replenishment signal is generated at all times, and the stock gathered at the nodes does not surpass a finite, precisely determined level. The theoretical content is illustrated with a case study of the Chinese oil supply system.
Command Filtered Finite/Fixed-time Heading Tracking Control of Surface Vehicles
Zhenyu Gao, Yi Zhang, Ge Guo
, Available online  
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This paper investigates the heading tracking problem of surface vehicles with unknown model parameters. Based on finite/fixed-time control theories and in the context of command filtered control, two novel adaptive control laws are developed by which the vehicle can track the desired heading within settling time with all signals of the closed-loop system are uniformly bounded. The effectiveness and performance of the schemes are demonstrated by simulations and comparison studies.
An Age-Dependent and State-Dependent Adaptive Prognostic Approach for Hidden Nonlinear Degrading System
Zhenan Pang, Xiaosheng Si, Changhua Hu, Zhengxin Zhang
, Available online  
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Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation approaches on the basis of the degradation data have been greatly developed, and significant advances have been witnessed. Establishing an applicable degradation model of the system is the foundation and key to accurately estimating its remaining useful life. Most current researches focus on age-dependent degradation models, but it has been found that some degradation processes in engineering are also related to the degradation states themselves. In addition, due to different working conditions and complex environments in engineering, the problems of the unit-to-unit variability in the degradation process of the same batch of systems and actual degradation states cannot be directly observed will affect the estimation accuracy of the remaining useful life. In order to solve the above issues jointly, we develop an age-dependent and state-dependent nonlinear degradation model taking into consideration the unit-to-unit variability and hidden degradation states. Then, the Kalman filter (KF) is utilized to update the hidden degradation states in real time, and the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to adaptively estimate the unknown model parameters. Besides, the approximate analytical remaining useful life distribution can be obtained from the concept of the first hitting time. Once the new observation is available, the remaining useful life distribution can be updated adaptively on the basis of the updated degradation states and model parameters. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach are shown by a numerical simulation and case studies for Li-ion batteries and rolling element bearings.
Domain-Invariant Similarity Activation Map Metric Learning for Retrieval-Based Long-Term Visual Localization
Hanjiang Hu, Hesheng Wang, Zhe Liu, Weidong Chen
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1003907
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Visual localization is a crucial component in the application of mobile robot and autonomous driving. Image retrieval is an efficient and effective technique in image-based localization methods. Due to the drastic variability of environmental conditions, e.g., illumination changes, retrieval-based visual localization is severely affected and becomes a challenging problem. In this work, a general architecture is first formulated probabilistically to extract domain-invariant features through multi-domain image translation. Then, a novel gradient-weighted similarity activation mapping loss (Grad-SAM) is incorporated for finer localization with high accuracy. We also propose a new adaptive triplet loss to boost the metric learning of the embedding in a self-supervised manner. The final coarse-to-fine image retrieval pipeline is implemented as the sequential combination of models with and without Grad-SAM loss. Extensive experiments have been conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on the CMU-Seasons dataset. The strong generalization ability of our approach is verified with the RobotCar dataset using models pre-trained on urban parts of the CMU-Seasons dataset. Our performance is on par with or even outperforms the state-of-the-art image-based localization baselines in medium or high precision, especially under challenging environments with illumination variance, vegetation, and night-time images. Moreover, real-site experiments have been conducted to validate the efficiency and effectiveness of the coarse-to-fine strategy for localization.
Kernel Generalization of Multi-rate Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis for Fault Detection in Nonlinear Process
Donglei Zheng, Le Zhou, Zhihuan Song
, Available online  
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In practical process industries, a variety of online and offline sensors and measuring instruments have been used for process control and monitoring purposes, which indicates that the measurements coming from different sources are collected at different sampling rates. To build a complete process monitoring strategy, all these multi-rate measurements should be considered for data-based modeling and monitoring. In this paper, a novel kernel multi-rate probabilistic principal component analysis (K-MPPCA) model is proposed to extract the nonlinear correlations among different sampling rates. In the proposed model, the model parameters are calibrated using the kernel trick and the expectation-maximum (EM) algorithm. Also, the corresponding fault detection methods based on the nonlinear features are developed. Finally, a simulated nonlinear case and an actual pre-decarburization unit in the ammonia synthesis process are tested to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning with Automatic Sub-goal Identification
Chenghao Liu, Fei Zhu, Quan Liu, Yuchen Fu
, Available online  
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In reinforcement learning an agent may explore ineffectively when dealing with sparse reward tasks where finding a reward point is difficult. To solve the problem, we propose an algorithm called hierarchical deep reinforcement learning with automatic sub-goal identification via computer vision (HADS) which takes advantage of hierarchical reinforcement learning to alleviate the sparse reward problem and improve efficiency of exploration by utilizing a sub-goal mechanism. HADS uses a computer vision method to identify sub-goals automatically for hierarchical deep reinforcement learning. Due to the fact that not all sub-goal points are reachable, a mechanism is proposed to remove unreachable sub-goal points so as to further improve the performance of the algorithm. HADS involves contour recognition to identify sub-goals from the state image where some salient states in the state image may be recognized as sub-goals, while those that are not will be removed based on prior knowledge. Our experiments verified the effect of the algorithm.
Data-Driven Heuristic Assisted Memetic Algorithm for Efficient Inter-Satellite Link Scheduling in the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
Yonghao Du, Ling Wang, Lining Xing, Jungang Yan, Mengsi Cai
, Available online  
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Inter-satellite link (ISL) scheduling is required by the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) to guarantee the system ranging and communication performance. In the BDS, a great number of ISL scheduling instances must be addressed every day, which will certainly spend a lot of time via normal metaheuristics and hardly meet the quick-response requirements that often occur in real-world applications. To address the dual requirements of normal and quick-response ISL schedulings, a data-driven heuristic assisted memetic algorithm (DHMA) is proposed in this paper, which includes a high-performance memetic algorithm (MA) and a data-driven heuristic. In normal situations, the high-performance MA that hybridizes parallelism, competition, and evolution strategies is performed for high-quality ISL scheduling solutions over time. When in quick-response situations, the data-driven heuristic is performed to quickly schedule high-probability ISLs according to a prediction model, which is trained from the high-quality MA solutions. The main idea of the DHMA is to address normal and quick-response schedulings separately, while high-quality normal scheduling data are trained for quick-response use. In addition, this paper also presents an easy-to-understand ISL scheduling model and its NP-completeness. A seven-day experimental study with 10,080 one-minute ISL scheduling instances shows the efficient performance of the DHMA in addressing the ISL scheduling in normal (in 84 hours) and quick-response (in 0.62 hour) situations, which can well meet the dual scheduling requirements in real-world BDS applications.
Formal Modeling and Discovery of Multi-instance Business Processes: A Cloud Resource Management Case Study
Cong Liu
, Available online  
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Process discovery, as one of the most challenging process analysis techniques, aims to uncover business process models from event logs. Many process discovery approaches were invented in the past twenty years; however, most of them have difficulties in handling multi-instance sub-processes. To address this challenge, we first introduce a Multi-instance Business Process Model (MBPM) to support the modeling of processes with multiple sub-process instantiations. Formal semantics of MBPMs are precisely defined by using Multi-instance Petri Nets (MPNs) that are an extension of Petri nets with distinguishable tokens. Then, a novel process discovery technique is developed to support the discovery of MBPMs from event logs with sub-process multiinstantiation information. In addition, we propose to measure the quality of the discovered MBPMs against the input event logs by transforming an MBPM to a classical Petri net such that existing quality metrics, e.g., fitness and precision, can be used. The proposed discovery approach is properly implemented as plugins in the ProM toolkit. Based on a cloud resource management case study, we compare our approach with the state-of-the-art process discovery techniques. The results demonstrate that our approach outperforms existing approaches to discover process models with multi-instance sub-processes.
Human-in-the-Loop Consensus Control for Nonlinear Multi-Agent Systems With Actuator Faults
Guohuai Lin, Hongyi Li, Hui Ma, Deyin Yao, Renquan Lu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003596
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This paper considers the human-in-the-loop leader-following consensus control problem of multi-agent systems (MASs) with unknown matched nonlinear functions and actuator faults. It is assumed that a human operator controls the MASs via sending the command signal to a non-autonomous leader which generates the desired trajectory. Moreover, the leader’s input is nonzero and not available to all followers. By using neural networks and fault estimators to approximate unknown nonlinear dynamics and identify the actuator faults, respectively, the neighborhood observer-based neural fault-tolerant controller with dynamic coupling gains is designed. It is proved that the state of each follower can synchronize with the leader’s state under a directed graph and all signals in the closed-loop system are guaranteed to be cooperatively uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, simulation results are presented for verifying the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Adaptive Attitude Control for MUAV Systems with Output Dead-Zone and Actuator Fault
Guowei Dong, Liang Cao, Deyin Yao, Hongyi Li, Renquan Lu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003605
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Many mechanical parts of multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (MUAV) can easily produce non-smooth phenomenon and the external disturbance that affects the stability of MUAV. For multi-MUAV attitude systems that experience output dead-zone, external disturbance and actuator fault, a leader-following consensus anti-disturbance and fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme is proposed in this paper. In the design process, the effect of unknown nonlinearity in multi-MUAV systems is addressed using neural networks (NNs). In order to balance out the effects of external disturbance and actuator fault, a disturbance observer is designed to compensate for the aforementioned negative impacts. The Nussbaum function is used to address the problem of output dead-zone. The designed fault-tolerant controller guarantees that the output signals of all followers and leader are synchronized by the backstepping technique. Finally, the effectiveness of the control scheme is verified by simulation experiments.
Human-Swarm-Teaming Transparency and Trust Architecture
Adam J. Hepworth, Daniel P. Baxter, Aya Hussein, Kate J. Yaxley, Essam Debie, Hussein A. Abbass
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003545
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Transparency is a widely used but poorly defined term within the explainable artificial intelligence literature. This is due, in part, to the lack of an agreed definition and the overlap between the connected — sometimes used synonymously — concepts of interpretability and explainability. We assert that transparency is the overarching concept, with the tenets of interpretability, explainability, and predictability subordinate. We draw on a portfolio of definitions for each of these distinct concepts to propose a human-swarm-teaming transparency and trust architecture (HST3-Architecture). The architecture reinforces transparency as a key contributor towards situation awareness, and consequently as an enabler for effective trustworthy human-swarm teaming (HST).
Towards Collaborative Robotics in Top View Surveillance: A Framework for Multiple Object Tracking by Detection Using Deep Learning
Imran Ahmed, Sadia Din, Gwanggil Jeon, Francesco Piccialli, Giancarlo Fortino
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003453
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Collaborative Robotics is one of the high-interest research topics in the area of academia and industry. It has been progressively utilized in numerous applications, particularly in intelligent surveillance systems. It allows the deployment of smart cameras or optical sensors with computer vision techniques, which may serve in several object detection and tracking tasks. These tasks have been considered challenging and high-level perceptual problems, frequently dominated by relative information about the environment, where main concerns such as occlusion, illumination, background, object deformation, and object class variations are commonplace. In order to show the importance of top view surveillance, a collaborative robotics framework has been presented. It can assist in the detection and tracking of multiple objects in top view surveillance. The framework consists of a smart robotic camera embedded with the visual processing unit. The existing pre-trained deep learning models named SSD and YOLO has been adopted for object detection and localization. The detection models are further combined with different tracking algorithms, including GOTURN, MEDIANFLOW, TLD, KCF, MIL, and BOOSTING. These algorithms, along with detection models, helps to track and predict the trajectories of detected objects. The pre-trained models are employed; therefore, the generalization performance is also investigated through testing the models on various sequences of top view data set. The detection models achieved maximum True Detection Rate 93% to 90% with a maximum 0.6% False Detection Rate. The tracking results of different algorithms are nearly identical, with tracking accuracy ranging from 90% to 94%. Furthermore, a discussion has been carried out on output results along with future guidelines.
Energy-Efficient Optimal Guaranteed Cost Intermittent-Switch Control of a Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System
Jun Mei, Zhenyu Lu, Junhao Hu, Yuling Fan
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003447
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To improve the energy efficiency of a direct expansion air conditioning (DX A/C) system while guaranteeing occupancy comfort, a hierarchical controller for a DX A/C system with uncertain parameters is proposed. The control strategy consists of an open loop optimization controller and a closed-loop guaranteed cost periodically intermittent-switch controller (GCPISC). The error dynamics system of the closed-loop control is modelled based on the GCPISC principle. The difference, compared to the previous DX A/C system control methods, is that the controller designed in this paper performs control at discrete times. For the ease of designing the controller, a series of matrix inequalities are derived to be the sufficient conditions of the lower-layer closed-loop GCPISC controller. In this way, the DX A/C system output is derived to follow the optimal references obtained through the upper-layer open loop controller in exponential time, and the energy efficiency of the system is improved. Moreover, a static optimization problem is addressed for obtaining an optimal GCPISC law to ensure a minimum upper bound on the DX A/C system performance considering energy efficiency and output tracking error. The advantages of the designed hierarchical controller for a DX A/C system with uncertain parameters are demonstrated through some simulation results.
Reduced-Order Observer-Based Leader-Following Formation Control for Discrete-Time Linear Multi-Agent Systems
Zhongxin Liu, Yangbo Li, Fuyong Wang, Zengqiang Chen
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003441
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Formation control of discrete-time linear multi-agent systems using directed switching topology is considered in this work via a reduced-order observer, in which a formation control protocol is proposed under the assumption that each directed communication topology has a directed spanning tree. By utilizing the relative outputs of neighboring agents, a reduced-order observer is designed for each following agent. A multi-step control algorithm is established based on the Lyapunov method and the modified discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation. A sufficient condition is given to ensure that the discrete-time linear multi-agent system can achieve the expected leader-following formation. Finally, numerical examples are provided so as to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.
A Novel Green Supplier Selection Method Based on the Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Prioritized Choquet Bonferroni Means
Peide Liu, Hui Gao
, Available online  
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In view of the environment competencies, selecting the optimal green supplier is one of the crucial issues for enterprises, and multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodologies can more easily solve this green supplier selection (GSS) problem. In addition, prioritized aggregation (PA) operator can focus on the prioritization relationship over the criteria, Choquet integral (CI) operator can fully take account of the importance of criteria and the interactions among them, and Bonferroni mean (BM) operator can capture the interrelationships of criteria. However, most existing researches cannot simultaneously consider the interactions, interrelationships and prioritizations over the criteria, which are involved in the GSS process. Moreover, the interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a more effective tool to represent the fuzziness. Therefore, based on the advantages of PA, CI, BM and IT2FS, in this paper, the interval type-2 fuzzy prioritized Choquet normalized weighted BM operators with λ fuzzy measure and generalized prioritized measure are proposed, and some properties are discussed. Then, a novel MCDM approach for GSS based upon the presented operators is developed, and detailed decision steps are given. Finally, the applicability and practicability of the proposed methodology are demonstrated by its application in the shared-bike GSS and by comparisons with other methods. The advantages of the proposed method are that it can consider interactions, interrelationships and prioritizations over the criteria simultaneously.
A Novel Product Remaining Useful Life Prediction Approach Considering Fault Effects
Jingdong Lin, Zheng Lin, Guobo Liao, Hongpeng Yin
, Available online  
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In this paper, a novel remaining useful life prediction approach considering fault effects is proposed. The Wiener process is used to construct the degradation process of single performance characteristic with the fault effects. The first passage time based remaining useful life distribution is calculated by assuming fault occurrence moment is a random variable and follows a certain distribution. Expectation maximization algorithm is employed to estimate model parameters, where the fault occurrence moment is considered as a missing data. Finally, a Copula function is used to describe the dependence between the multiple performance characteristics and derive joint RUL distribution of product with the fault effects. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by the experiments of turbofan engines.
A New Safety Assessment Method Based on Belief Rule Base With Attribute Reliability
Zhichao Feng, Wei He, Zhijie Zhou, Xiaojun Ban, Changhua Hu, Xiaoxia Han
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003399
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Safety assessment is one of important aspects in health management. In safety assessment for practical systems, three problems exist: lack of observation information, high system complexity and environment interference. Belief rule base with attribute reliability (BRB-r) is an expert system that provides a useful way for dealing with these three problems. In BRB-r, once the input information is unreliable, the reliability of belief rule is influenced, which further influences the accuracy of its output belief degree. On the other hand, when many system characteristics exist, the belief rule combination will explode in BRB-r, and the BRB-r based safety assessment model becomes too complicated to be applied. Thus, in this paper, to balance the complexity and accuracy of the safety assessment model, a new safety assessment model based on BRB-r with considering belief rule reliability is developed for the first time. In the developed model, a new calculation method of the belief rule reliability is proposed with considering both attribute reliability and global ignorance. Moreover, to reduce the influence of uncertainty of expert knowledge, an optimization model for the developed safety assessment model is constructed. A case study of safety assessment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tank is conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the new developed model.
Theory and Experiments on Enclosing Control of Multi-Agent Systems
Yihui Wang, Yanfei Liu, Zhong Wang
, Available online  
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This paper proposes a control strategy called enclosing control. This strategy can be described as follows: the followers design their control inputs based on the state information of neighbor agents and move to specified positions. The convex hull formed by these followers contains the leaders. We use the single-integrator model to describe the dynamics of the agents and proposes a continuous-time control protocol and a sampled-data based protocol for multi-agent systems with stationary leaders with fixed network topology. Then the state differential equations are analyzed to obtain the parameter requirements for the system to achieve convergence. Moreover, the conditions achieving enclosing control are established for both protocols. A special enclosing control with no leader located on the convex hull boundary under the protocols is studied, which can effectively prevent enclosing control failures caused by errors in the system. Moreover, several simulations are proposed to validate theoretical results and compare the differences between the three control protocols. Finally, experimental results on the multi-robot platform are provided to verify the feasibility of the protocol in the physical system.
MU-GAN: Facial Attribute Editing Based on Multi-Attention Mechanism
Ke Zhang, Yukun Su, Xiwang Guo, Liang Qi, Zhenbing Zhao
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003390
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Facial attribute editing has mainly two objectives: 1) translating image from a source domain to a target one, and 2) only changing the facial regions related to a target attribute and preserving the attribute-excluding details. In this work, we propose a multi-attention U-Net-based generative adversarial network (MU-GAN). First, we replace a classic convolutional encoder-decoder with a symmetric U-Net-like structure in a generator, and then apply an additive attention mechanism to build attention-based U-Net connections for adaptively transferring encoder representations to complement a decoder with attribute-excluding detail and enhance attribute editing ability. Second, a self-attention (SA) mechanism is incorporated into convolutional layers for modeling long-range and multi-level dependencies across image regions. Experimental results indicate that our method is capable of balancing attribute editing ability and details preservation ability, and can decouple the correlation among attributes. It outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of attribute manipulation accuracy and image quality. Our code is available at https://github.com/SuSir1996/MU-GAN.
DRRS-BC: Decentralized Routing Registration System Based on Blockchain
Huimin LU, Yu TANG, Yi SUN
, Available online  
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The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) has become the indispensible infrastructure of the Internet as a typical inter-domain routing protocol. However, it is vulnerable to misconfigurations and malicious attacks since BGP does not provide enough authentication mechanism to the route advertisement. As a result, it has brought about many security incidents with huge economic losses. Exiting solutions to the routing security problem such as S-BGP, So-BGP, Ps-BGP and RPKI, are based on the Public Key Infrastructure and face a high security risk from the centralized structure. In this paper, we propose the decentralized blockchain-based route registration framework-Decentralized Route Registration System based on Blockchain (DRRS-BC). In DRRS-BC, we produce a global transaction ledge by the information of address prefixes and autonomous system numbers between multiple organizations and ASs, which is maintained by all blockchain nodes and further used for authentication. By applying blockchain, DRRS-BC perfectly solves the problems of identity authentication, behavior authentication as well as the promotion and deployment problem rather than depending on the authentication center. Moreover, it resists to prefix and subprefix hijacking attacks and meets the performance and security requirements of route registration.
Exact Controllability and Exact Observability of Descriptor Infinite Dimensional Systems
Zhaoqiang Ge
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003411
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Necessary and sufficient conditions for the exact controllability and exact observability of a descriptor infinite dimensional system are obtained in the sense of distributional solution. These general results are used to examine the exact controllability and exact observability of the Dzektser equation in the theory of seepage and the exact controllability of wave equation.
Exponential-Alpha Safety Criteria of a Class of Dynamic Systems with Barrier Functions
Zheren Zhu, Yi Chai, Zhimin Yang, Chenghong Huang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003408
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A classic kind of researches about the operational safety criterion for dynamic systems with barrier function can be roughly summarized as functional relationship, denoted by \begin{document}$\oplus $\end{document}, between the barrier function and its first derivative for time \begin{document}$t$\end{document}, where \begin{document}$\oplus $\end{document} can be “=”, “\begin{document}$\langle $\end{document}”, or “\begin{document}$\rangle $\end{document}”, et al. This article draws on the form of the stable condition expression for finite time stability to formulate a novel kind of relaxed safety judgement criteria called exponential-alpha safety criteria. Moreover, we initially explore to use the control barrier function under exponential-alpha safety criteria to achieve the control for the dynamic system operational safety. In addition, derived from the actual process systems, we propose multi-hypersphere methods which are used to construct barrier functions and improved them for three types of special spatial relationships between the safe state set and the unsafe state set, where both of them can be spatially divide into multiple subsets. And the effectiveness of the proposed safety criteria are demonstrated by simulation examples.
An Optimal Control Strategy for Multi-UAVs Target Tracking and Cooperative Competition
Yiguo Yang, Liefa Liao, Hong Yang, Shuai Li
, Available online  
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An optimal control strategy of winner-take-all (WTA) model is proposed for target tracking and cooperative competition of multi-UAVs. In this model, firstly, based on the artificial potential field method, the artificial potential field function is improved and the fuzzy control decision is designed to realize the trajectory tracking of dynamic targets. Secondly, according to the finite-time convergence high-order differentiator, a double closed-loop UAV speed tracking controller is designed to realize the speed control and tracking of the target tracking trajectory. Numerical simulation results show that the designed speed tracking controller has the advantages of fast tracking, high precision, strong stability and avoiding chattering. Finally, a cooperative competition scheme of multiple UAVs based on WTA is designed to find the minimum control energy from multiple UAVs and realize the optimal control strategy. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that the model has the fast convergence, high control accuracy, strong stability and good robustness.
Adaptive Control of Discrete-time Nonlinear Systems Using ITF-ORVFL
Xiaofei Zhang, Hongbin Ma, Wenchao Zuo, Man Luo
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911801
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Random vector functional link networks (RVFL) is a class of single hidden layer neural networks based on a learner paradigm by which some parameters are randomly selected and contains more information due to the direct links between inputs and outputs. In this paper, combining the advantages of RVFL and the ideas of online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) and initial-training-free online extreme learning machine (ITF-OELM), a novel online learning algorithm which is named as initial-training-free online random vector functional link (ITF-ORVFL) is investigated for training RVFL. Because the idea of ITF-ORVFL comes from OS-ELM and ITF-OELM, the link vector of RVFL can be analytically determined based on sequentially arriving data by ITF-ORVFL with a high learning speed. Besides a novel variable is added to the update formulae of ITF-ORVFL, and the stability for nonlinear systems based on this learning algorithm is guaranteed. The experiment results indicate that the proposed ITF-ORVFL is effective in estimating nonparametric uncertainty.
Static Force-Based Modeling and Parameter Estimation for a Deformable Link Composed of Passive Spherical Joints with Preload Forces
Gaofeng Li, Dezhen Song, Lei Sun, Shan Xu, Hongpeng Wang, Jingtai Liu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911549
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To balance the contradiction between higher flexibility and heavier load bearing capacity, we present a novel deformable manipulator which is composed of active rigid joints and deformable links. The deformable link is composed of passive spherical joints with preload forces between socket-ball surfaces. To estimate the load bearing capacity of a deformable link, we present a static force-based model of spherical joint with preload force and analyze the static force propagation in the deformable link. This yields an important result that the load bearing capacity of a spherical joint only depends on its radius, preload force, and static friction coefficient. We further develop a parameter estimation method to estimate the product of preload force and static friction coefficient. The experimental results validate our model. 80.4% of percentage errors on the maximum payload mass prediction are below 15%.
Vision Based Hand Gesture Recognition Using 3D Shape Context
Chen Zhu, Jianyu Yang, Zhanpeng Shao, Chunping Liu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911534
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Hand gesture recognition is a popular topic in computer vision and makes human-computer interaction more flexible and convenient. The representation of hand gestures is critical for recognition. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the similarity between hand gestures and exploit it for hand gesture recognition. The depth maps of hand gestures captured via the Kinect sensors are used in our method, where the 3D hand shapes can be segmented from the cluttered backgrounds. To extract the pattern of salient 3D shape features, we propose a new descriptor–3D Shape Context, for 3D hand gesture representation. The 3D Shape Context information of each 3D point is obtained in multiple scales because both local shape context and global shape distribution are necessary for recognition. The description of all the 3D points constructs the hand gesture representation, and hand gesture recognition is explored via dynamic time warping algorithm. Extensive experiments are conducted on multiple benchmark datasets. The experimental results verify that the proposed method is robust to noise, articulated variations, and rigid transformations. Our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods in the comparisons of accuracy and efficiency.
PAPERS
Distributed MPC for Reconfigurable Architecture Systems via Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers
Ting Bai, Shaoyuan Li, Yuanyuan Zou
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003195
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This paper investigates the distributed model predictive control (MPC) problem of linear systems whose network topologies are changeable by the way of inserting new subsystems, disconnecting existing subsystems, or merely modifying the couplings between different subsystems. To equip live systems with the quick response ability when modifying network topology, while keeping a satisfactory dynamic performance, a novel reconfiguration control scheme based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is presented. In this scheme, the local controllers directly influenced by the structure realignment are redesigned in the reconfiguration control. Meanwhile, by employing the powerful ADMM algorithm, the iterative formulas for solving the reconfigured optimization problem are obtained, which significantly accelerate the computation speed and ensure a timely output of the reconfigured optimal control response. Ultimately, the presented reconfiguration scheme is applied to the level control of a benchmark four-tank plant to illustrate its effectiveness and main characteristics.
REVIEWS
Disassembly Sequence Planning: A Survey
Xiwang Guo, MengChu Zhou, Abdullah Abusorrah, Fahad Alsokhiry, Khaled Sedraoui
, Available online  , doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003515
Abstract HTML PDF
Abstract:
It is well-recognized that obsolete or discarded products can cause serious environmental pollution if they are poorly be handled. They contain reusable resource that can be recycled and used to generate desired economic benefits. Therefore, performing their efficient disassembly is highly important in green manufacturing and sustainable economic development. Their typical examples are electronic appliances and electromechanical/mechanical products. This paper presents a survey on the state of the art of disassembly sequence planning (DSP). It can help new researchers or decision makers to search for the right solution for optimal disassembly planning. It reviews the disassembly theory and methods that are applied for the processing, repair, and maintenance of obsolete/discarded products. This paper discusses the recent progress of disassembly sequencing planning including new theories and methods in four major aspects: product disassembly modeling methods, mathematical programming methods, artificial intelligence (AI) methods, and uncertainty handling. This survey should stimulate readers to be engaged in the research, development and applications of disassembly and remanufacturing methodologies.
PAPER
Distributed Subgradient Algorithm for Multi-Agent Optimization With Dynamic Stepsize
Xiaoxing Ren, Dewei Li, Yugeng Xi, Haibin Shao
, Available online  
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Abstract:
In this paper, we consider distributed convex optimization problems on multi-agent networks. We develop and analyze the distributed gradient method which allows each agent to compute its dynamic stepsize by utilizing the time-varying estimate of the local function value at the global optimal solution. Our approach can be applied to both synchronous and asynchronous communication protocols. Specifically, we propose the DS-UD algorithm for synchronous protocol and the AsynDGD algorithm for asynchronous protocol. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithms guarantee that all agents reach a consensus on the solution to the multi-agent optimization problem. Moreover, the proposed approach with dynamic stepsizes eliminates the requirement of diminishing stepsize in existing works. Numerical examples of distributed estimation in sensor networks are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

  • JCR Impact Factor 2019: 5.129
    Rank:Top 17% (11/63), Category of Automation & Control Systems
    Quantile: The 1st (SCI Q1)
    CiteScore 2019 : 8.3
    Rank: Top 9% (Category of Computer Science: Information System) , Top 11% (Category of Control and Systems Engineering), Top 12% (Category of Artificial Intelligence)
    Quantile: The 1st (Q1)